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What's in a name?

Policymakers are in a tangle over how to account for the higher 'well-to-wheel' emissions of fuel extracted from sand, Sonja van Renssen reports.

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Figure 1: 'Well-to-wheel' emissions.


  1. Directive 2009/30/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009; available via

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What's in a name?. Nature Clim Change 1, 241–242 (2011).

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