Several important cofactors are adenine nucleotides with a vitamin as the catalytic moiety. Here, we report the discovery of the first adenine nucleotide containing vitamin B1: adenosine thiamine triphosphate (AThTP, 1), or thiaminylated ATP. We discovered AThTP in Escherichia coli and found that it accumulates specifically in response to carbon starvation, thereby acting as a signal rather than a cofactor. We detected smaller amounts in yeast and in plant and animal tissues.
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This work was supported by grant 2.4558.04 from the Fonds de la Recherche Fondamentale Collective and by grants from the Fonds pour la Formation à la Recherche dans l'Industrie et dans l'Agriculture to B.W. and M.G. M.F. and L.B. are respectively Research Associate and Senior Research Associate at the Fonds de la Recherche Scientifique–FNRS. The authors thank D. Baiwir for help with MS and I. Margineanu for helpful comments on the manuscript.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Purification of AThTP on a Polaris C18 HPLC column. (PDF 85 kb)
Mass spectrometry. (PDF 464 kb)
NMR data. (PDF 280 kb)
Enzymatic hydrolysis of AThTP. (PDF 109 kb)
Purification of AThTP from E. coli. (PDF 91 kb)
Effect of media composition on the content of ThTP and AThTP in E. coli. (PDF 68 kb)
Occurrence of AThTP and ThTP in eukaryotic organisms. (PDF 108 kb)
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Bettendorff, L., Wirtzfeld, B., Makarchikov, A. et al. Discovery of a natural thiamine adenine nucleotide. Nat Chem Biol 3, 211–212 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio867
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