Abstract

Cephalostatin 1, OSW-1, ritterazine B and schweinfurthin A are natural products that potently, and in some cases selectively, inhibit the growth of cultured human cancer cell lines. The cellular targets of these small molecules have yet to be identified. We have discovered that these molecules target oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) and its closest paralog, OSBP-related protein 4L (ORP4L)—proteins not known to be involved in cancer cell survival. OSBP and the ORPs constitute an evolutionarily conserved protein superfamily, members of which have been implicated in signal transduction, lipid transport and lipid metabolism. The functions of OSBP and the ORPs, however, remain largely enigmatic. Based on our findings, we have named the aforementioned natural products ORPphilins. Here we used ORPphilins to reveal new cellular activities of OSBP. The ORPphilins are powerful probes of OSBP and ORP4L that will be useful in uncovering their cellular functions and their roles in human diseases.

  • Compound C54H74N2O10

    Cephalostatin 1

  • Compound C47H68O15

    OSW-1

  • Compound C54H78N2O9

    Ritterazine B

  • Compound C34H44O6

    Schweinfurthin A

  • Compound C35H46O6

    Schweinfurthin B

  • Compound C60H82N2O18

    3-Xylosyl-((allyloxycarbonyl-(N)-4-diaminomethyl)benzyl carbamate)-OSW-1

  • Compound C60H82N2O18

    4-Xylosyl-((allyloxycarbonyl-(N)-4-diaminomethyl)benzyl carbamate)-OSW-1

  • Compound C39H62O13

    (2S,3R,4S,5S)-2-(((3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,16S,17S)-3,17-Dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-17-((S)-6-methyl-3-oxoheptan-2-yl)-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-16-yl)oxy)-5-hydroxy-4-(((2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-3-yl acetate

  • Compound C37H60O12

    (S)-2-((3S,8R,9S,10R,13S,14S,16S,17S)-16-(((2S,3R,4S,5S)-3,5-Dihydroxy-4-(((2S,3R,4S,5R)-3,4,5-trihydroxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)tetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-yl)oxy)-3,17-dihydroxy-10,13-dimethyl-2,3,4,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17-tetradecahydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-yl)-6-methylheptan-3-one

  • Compound C53H82O15Si

    3-(tert-Butyldimethylsilyl)-OSW-1

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Acknowledgements

We thank the NCI for the generous gifts of schweinfurthin A. (J.A. Beutler) and ritterazine B. We gratefully acknowledge the aforementioned reagents provided by G. Romeo (Joslin Diabetes Center), M. Brown and J. Goldstein (University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center), H. Arai (University of Tokyo), B. Vogelstein (Johns Hopkins University) and D. Ory (Washington University, St. Louis). The beta-tubulin monoclonal antibody (E7) developed by M. Klymkowsky was obtained from the Developmental Studies Hybridoma Bank (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, US National Institutes of Health (NIH) and University of Iowa, Department of Biology). R. King is acknowledged for helpful comments and discussions. T.B.P. would like to thank the Lundbeck foundation for a post-doctoral fellowship and the Danish Council for Independent Research–Natural Sciences for additional financial support. A.W.G.B gratefully thanks the Susan G. Komen for the Cure Foundation for providing a postdoctoral research fellowship. Financial support from the Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, the US NIH (grant no. R01GM090068), the Harvard Catalyst and The Harvard Clinical and Translational Science Center (NIH award no. UL1RR025758) is acknowledged. This work was conducted with support and financial contributions from Harvard University and its affiliated academic health care centers.

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Affiliations

  1. Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Anthony W G Burgett
    • , Thomas B Poulsen
    • , Kittikhun Wangkanont
    • , D Ryan Anderson
    • , Chikako Kikuchi
    • , Kousei Shimada
    • , Shuichi Okubo
    • , Kevin C Fortner
    •  & Matthew D Shair
  2. School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.

    • Yoshihiro Mimaki
    •  & Minpei Kuroda
  3. Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Jason P Murphy
    • , David J Schwalb
    • , Eugene C Petrella
    • , Ivan Cornella-Taracido
    • , Markus Schirle
    •  & John A Tallarico

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Contributions

M.D.S., A.W.G.B., T.B.P., K.W. and D.R.A. conceived and designed the study. A.W.G.B., T.B.P., K.W. and D.R.A. implemented experiments. K.C.F. prepared cephalostatin 1. The OSBP and ORP4L molecular biology was done by K.W. and C.K. K.S. prepared OSW-1. S.O. performed early studies on p21 selectivity. Y.M. and M.K. supplied OSW-1 isolated from nature. A.W.G.B., D.R.A., M.S., J.P.M., E.C.P., D.J.S., I.C.-T. and J.A.T. performed the OSW-1 affinity chromatography experiments and subsequent quantitative mass spectrometry analysis. M.D.S., A.W.G.B., T.B.P. and K.W. wrote the paper.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Matthew D Shair.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.625

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