Distinct modifications fine-tune the activity of jasmonic acid (JA) in regulating plant growth and immunity. Hydroxylated JA (12OH-JA) promotes flower and tuber development but prevents induction of JA signaling, plant defense or both. However, biosynthesis of 12OH-JA has remained elusive. We report here an antibiotic biosynthesis monooxygenase (Abm) that converts endogenous free JA into 12OH-JA in the model rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Such fungal 12OH-JA is secreted during host penetration and helps evade the defense response. Loss of Abm in M. oryzae led to accumulation of methyl JA (MeJA), which induces host defense and blocks invasive growth. Exogenously added 12OH-JA markedly attenuated abmΔ-induced immunity in rice. Notably, Abm itself is secreted after invasion and most likely converts plant JA into 12OH-JA to facilitate host colonization. This study sheds light on the chemical arms race during plant-pathogen interaction, reveals Abm as an antifungal target and outlines a synthetic strategy for transformation of a versatile small-molecule phytohormone.
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We thank P. Staswick (University of Nebraska) for the chemically synthesized 12OH-JA and L. Laplaze (Institut de recherche pour le développement, France) for sharing Jas9-VENUS plasmids and transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. We thank L. Yixin and Z. Bo for help with ChemDraw. We also thank the Fungal Patho-Biology group for helpful discussions and suggestions. We are grateful to M. Calvert for help in spinning-disk confocal microscopy. This research was carried out using funds from the Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory (Singapore) and the National Research Foundation (Prime Minister's Office; NRF-CRP7-2010-02), Singapore.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Supplementary Results, Supplementary Table 1 and Supplementary Figures 1–15. (PDF 19870 kb)
Dynamics of Jas9-VENUS and H2B-RFP over a 30 min period in transgenic Arabidopsis roots treated with 1% ethanol (MOV 1649 kb)
Dynamics of Jas9-VENUS and H2B-RFP over a 30 min period in transgenic Arabidopsis roots treated with 50 μM JA (MOV 1528 kb)
Dynamics of Jas9-VENUS and H2B-RFP over a 30 min period in transgenic Arabidopsis roots treated with 50 μM MeJA (MOV 1156 kb)
Dynamics of Jas9-VENUS and H2B-RFP over a 30 min period in transgenic Arabidopsis roots treated with 50 μM 12OH-JA (MOV 1484 kb)
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Patkar, R., Benke, P., Qu, Z. et al. A fungal monooxygenase-derived jasmonate attenuates host innate immunity. Nat Chem Biol 11, 733–740 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.1885
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