Functional antibody delivery in living cells would enable the labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens, which constitutes a long-thought goal in cell biology and medicine. Here we present a modular strategy to create functional cell-permeable nanobodies capable of targeted labelling and manipulation of intracellular antigens in living cells. The cell-permeable nanobodies are formed by the site-specific attachment of intracellularly stable (or cleavable) cyclic arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides to camelid-derived single-chain VHH antibody fragments. We used this strategy for the non-endocytic delivery of two recombinant nanobodies into living cells, which enabled the relocalization of the polymerase clamp PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and tumour suppressor p53 to the nucleolus, and thereby allowed the detection of protein–protein interactions that involve these two proteins in living cells. Furthermore, cell-permeable nanobodies permitted the co-transport of therapeutically relevant proteins, such as Mecp2, into the cells. This technology constitutes a major step in the labelling, delivery and targeted manipulation of intracellular antigens. Ultimately, this approach opens the door towards immunostaining in living cells and the expansion of immunotherapies to intracellular antigen targets.
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We thank K. K. Hassanin and A. Lehmkuhl for excellent technical assistance. We are grateful to J. Hewing and A. Krella for the generation and characterization of MaSat fusion and PCNA expression constructs, respectively, and R. Kühne for providing the pGEX4T1eGFP plasmid. Furthermore, we thank J. Helma for his great support during the nanobody cloning and expression. This work was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SPP1623) to M.C.C. (CA 198/8-2), C.P.R.H. (HA 4468/9-1) and H.L. (LE 721/13-2), the Einstein Foundation Berlin (Leibniz-Humboldt Professorship) and the Boehringer-Ingelheim Foundation (Plus 3 award) to C.P.R.H., the Fonds der Chemischen Industrie to C.P.R.H. and to D.S. (Kekulé fellowship) and A.F.L.S (Chemiefonds fellowship) and the Nanosystems Initiative Munich to H.L.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Herce, H., Schumacher, D., Schneider, A. et al. Cell-permeable nanobodies for targeted immunolabelling and antigen manipulation in living cells. Nature Chem 9, 762–771 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2811
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