Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers

Abstract

Advances in template-directed synthesis make it possible to create artificial molecules with protein-like dimensions, directly from simple components. These synthetic macromolecules have a proclivity for self-organization that is reminiscent of biopolymers. Here, we report the synthesis of monodisperse cyclic porphyrin polymers, with diameters of up to 21 nm (750 C–C bonds). The ratio of the intrinsic viscosities for cyclic and linear topologies is 0.72, indicating that these polymers behave as almost ideal flexible chains in solution. When deposited on gold surfaces, the cyclic polymers display a new mode of two-dimensional supramolecular organization, combining encapsulation and nesting; one nanoring adopts a near-circular conformation, thus allowing a second nanoring to be captured within its perimeter, in a tightly folded conformation. Scanning tunnelling microscopy reveals that nesting occurs in combination with stacking when nanorings are deposited under vacuum, whereas when they are deposited directly from solution under ambient conditions there is stacking or nesting, but not a combination of both.

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Figure 1: Vernier-template-directed synthesis of nanorings c-P30 and c-P40 and molecular structures of the components.
Figure 2: Product distributions of coupling reactions.
Figure 3: GPC retention times of cyclic and linear porphyrin oligomers plotted against log molecular weight, showing that the rings are more compact than the linear chains.
Figure 4: STM images of nanorings deposited on gold surfaces under UHV.
Figure 5: STM images of c-P30 deposited on Au(111) from solution and imaged under ambient conditions.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), the European Research Council (ERC) and the Clarendon Fund for support, and the EPSRC mass spectrometry service (Swansea) for mass spectra.

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Contributions

H.L.A. and D.V.K. designed the synthesis of cyclic polymers. P.H.B., L.M.A.P., J.N.O.S. and A.M.S.E. developed the protocols required for STM imaging. Synthesis and solution-phase characterization were carried out by D.V.K. UHV and ambient STM experiments were carried out by L.M.A.P. and A.M.S.E., respectively. The manuscript was written by D.V.K., H.L.A. and P.H.B. All authors contributed to data analysis and edited the manuscript.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Peter H. Beton or Harry L. Anderson.

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The authors declare no competing financial interests.

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Kondratuk, D., Perdigão, L., Esmail, A. et al. Supramolecular nesting of cyclic polymers. Nature Chem 7, 317–322 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2182

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