Although dominating the consumer electronics markets as the power source of choice for popular portable devices, the common lithium battery is not yet suited for use in sustainable electrified road transport. The development of advanced, higher-energy lithium batteries is essential in the rapid establishment of the electric car market. Owing to its exceptionally high energy potentiality, the lithium–air battery is a very appealing candidate for fulfilling this role. However, the performance of such batteries has been limited to only a few charge–discharge cycles with low rate capability. Here, by choosing a suitable stable electrolyte and appropriate cell design, we demonstrate a lithium–air battery capable of operating over many cycles with capacity and rate values as high as 5,000 mAh gcarbon−1 and 3 A gcarbon−1, respectively. For this battery we estimate an energy density value that is much higher than those offered by the currently available lithium-ion battery technology.
Scrosati, B., Hassoun, J. & Sun, Y.-K. Lithium ion batteries. A look into the future. Ener. Environ. Sci. 4, 3287–3295 (2011).
Bruce, P. G., Freunberger, S. A., Hardwick, L. J. & Tarascon, J. M. Nature Mater. 11, 19–29 (2012).
Girishkumar, G., McCloskey, B., Luntz, A. C., Swanson, S. & Wilcke, W. Lithium-air battery: promise and challenges. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2193–2203 (2010).
Debart, A., Peterson, A. J., Bao, J. & Bruce, P. G. α-MnO2 nanowires: a catalyst for the O2 electrode in rechargeable lithium batteries. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 47, 4521–4524 (2008).
Hassoun, J., Croce, F., Armand, M. & Scrosati, B. Investigation of the O2 electrochemistry in a polymer electrolyte solid-state cell. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 50, 2999–3002 (2011).
Lu, Y.-C., Gasteiger, H. A. & Shao-Horn, Y. Method development to evaluate the oxygen reduction activity of high-surface-area catalysts for Li–air batteries. Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 14, A70–A74 (2011).
Freunberger, S. A. et al. Reactions in the rechargeable lithium–O2 battery with alkyl carbonate electrolytes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 8040–8047 (2011).
Xu, W., Xiao, J., Zhang, J., Wang, D. & Zhang, J.-G. Optimization of nonaqueous electrolytes for primary lithium/air batteries operated in ambient environment. J. Electrochem. Soc. 156, A773–A779 (2009).
Kuboki, T., Okuyama, T., Ohsaki, T. & Takami, N. Lithium–air batteries using hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid electrolyte. J. Power Sources 146, 766–769 (2005).
Hassoun, J. & Scrosati, B. Moving to a solid-state configuration: a valid approach to making lithium–sulfur batteries viable for practical applications. Adv. Mater. 22, 5198–5201 (2010).
Aurbach, D. & Granot, E. The study of electrolyte solutions based on solvents from the ‘glyme’ family (linear polyethers) for secondary Li battery systems. Electrochim. Acta 42, 697–718 (1997).
Wen, C. J., Boukamp, B. A., Huggins, R. A. & Weppner, W. Thermodynamic and mass transport properties of ‘LiAl’. J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 2258–2266 (1979).
Thompson, A. H. Electrochemical potential spectroscopy: a new electrochemical measurement. J. Electrochem. Soc. 126, 608–616 (1979).
Mitchell, R. R., Gallant, B. M., Thompson, C. V. & Shao-Horn, Y. All-carbon-nanofiber electrodes for high-energy rechargeable Li–O2 batteries. Energy Environ. Sci. 4, 2952–2958 (2011).
Black, R. et al. Screening for superoxide reactivity in Li–O2 batteries: effect on Li2O2/LiOH crystallization. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 2902–2905 (2012).
Zanello, P. Inorganic Electrochemistry: Theory, Practice and Application (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2003).
Bard, A. J. & Faulkner, L. R. Electrochemical Methods: Fundamentals and Applications (Wiley, 2000).
Dees, D. W., Kawauchi, S., Abraham, D. P. & Prakash, J. Analysis of the Galvanostatic Intermittent Titration Technique (GITT) as applied to a lithium-ion porous electrode. J. Power Sources 189, 263–268 (2009).
Pyun, S.-I., Choi, Y.-M. & Jeng, I.-D. Effect of the lithium content on electrochemical lithium intercalation into amorphous and crystalline powdered Lil+ηMn2O4 electrodes prepared by sol–gel method. J. Power Sources 68, 593–599 (1997).
Aurbach, D. Review of selected electrode–solution interactions which determine the performance of Li and Li ion batteries. J. Power Sources 89, 206–218 (2000).
Choi, J.-W. et al. Rechargeable lithium sulfur battery containing toluene as additive. J. Power Sources 183, 441–445 (2008).
Cheon, S.-E. et al. Rechargeable lithium sulfur battery II. Rate capability and cycle characteristics. J. Electrochem. Soc. 150, A800–A805 (2003).
Yoshida, K. et al. Oxidative-stability enhancement and charge transport mechanism in glyme–lithium salt equimolar complexes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133, 13121–13129 (2011).
This work was supported in part by the Human Resources Development of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) grant funded by the Korea government Ministry of Knowledge Economy (no. 20114010203150) and by the Project ‘REALIST’ (Rechargeable, Advanced, Nano Structured Lithium Batteries with High Energy Storage) sponsored by the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT). The authors thank Chong Seung Yoon of Hanyang University for TEM and SEM measurements.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
About this article
Cite this article
Jung, HG., Hassoun, J., Park, JB. et al. An improved high-performance lithium–air battery. Nature Chem 4, 579–585 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1376
Recent discovery of a multifunctional metallo-organic precursor for fabricating Co3O4/N-doped porous carbon by one-step in situ pyrolysis as an anode material for Li-ion batteries
Journal of Materials Science (2021)
Effects of Fluorinated Diluents in Localized High‐Concentration Electrolytes for Lithium–Oxygen Batteries
Advanced Functional Materials (2021)
ACS Catalysis (2021)