Dohner, H. et al. Diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia in adults: recommendations from an international expert panel, on behalf of the European LeukemiaNet. Blood 115, 453–474 (2010).
Estey, E. & Dohner, H. Acute myeloid leukaemia. Lancet 368, 1894–1907 (2006).
Sasine, J. P. & Schiller, G. J. Acute myeloid leukemia: how do we measure success? Curr. Hematol. Malig. Rep. 6, 528–536 (2016).
Boyd, A. L. et al. Niche displacement of human leukemic stem cells uniquely allows their competitive replacement with healthy HSPCs. J. Exp. Med. 211, 1925–1935 (2014).
Glait-Santar, C. et al. Functional niche competition between normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and myeloid leukemia cells. Stem Cells 33, 3635–3642 (2015).
Boyd, A. L. & Bhatia, M. Bone marrow localization and functional properties of human hematopoietic stem cells. Curr. Opin. Hematol. 21, 249–255 (2014).
Morrison, S. J. & Scadden, D. T. The bone marrow niche for haematopoietic stem cells. Nature 505, 327–334 (2014).
Hanoun, M. et al. Acute myelogenous leukemia-induced sympathetic neuropathy promotes malignancy in an altered hematopoietic stem cell niche. Cell Stem Cell 15, 365–375 (2014).
Schepers, K. et al. Myeloproliferative neoplasia remodels the endosteal bone marrow niche into a self-reinforcing leukemic niche. Cell Stem Cell 13, 285–299 (2013).
Bonnet, D. & Dick, J. E. Human acute myeloid leukemia is organized as a hierarchy that originates from a primitive hematopoietic cell. Nat. Med. 3, 730–737 (1997).
Lapidot, T. et al. A cell initiating human acute myeloid leukaemia after transplantation into SCID mice. Nature 367, 645–648 (1994).
Miraki-Moud, F. et al. Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but induces cytopenias by impeding their differentiation. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 13576–13581 (2013).
Goyama, S., Wunderlich, M. & Mulloy, J. C. Xenograft models for normal and malignant stem cells. Blood 125, 2630–2640 (2015).
Shafat, M. S. et al. Leukemic blasts program bone marrow adipocytes to generate a protumoral microenvironment. Blood 129, 1320–1332 (2017).
Ye, H. et al. Leukemic stem cells evade chemotherapy by metabolic adaptation to an adipose tissue niche. Cell Stem Cell 19, 23–37 (2016).
Scheller, E. L., Cawthorn, W. P., Burr, A. A., Horowitz, M. C. & MacDougald, O. A. Marrow adipose tissue: trimming the fat. Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 27, 392–403 (2016).
Scheller, E. L. et al. Region-specific variation in the properties of skeletal adipocytes reveals regulated and constitutive marrow adipose tissues. Nat. Commun. 6, 7808 (2015).
Spalding, K. L. et al. Dynamics of fat cell turnover in humans. Nature 453, 783–787 (2008).
Naveiras, O. et al. Bone-marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the haematopoietic microenvironment. Nature 460, 259–263 (2009).
Medyouf, H. The microenvironment in human myeloid malignancies: emerging concepts and therapeutic implications. Blood 129, 1617–1626 (2017).
Calvi, L. M. et al. Osteoblastic cells regulate the haematopoietic stem cell niche. Nature 425, 841–846 (2003).
Guezguez, B. et al. Regional localization within the bone marrow influences the functional capacity of human HSCs. Cell Stem Cell 13, 175–189 (2013).
Xie, Y. et al. Detection of functional haematopoietic stem cell niche using real-time imaging. Nature 457, 97–101 (2009).
Zhang, J. et al. Identification of the haematopoietic stem cell niche and control of the niche size. Nature 425, 836–841 (2003).
Frisch, B. J. et al. Functional inhibition of osteoblastic cells in an in vivo mouse model of myeloid leukemia. Blood 119, 540–550 (2012).
Krevvata, M. et al. Inhibition of leukemia cell engraftment and disease progression in mice by osteoblasts. Blood 124, 2834–2846 (2014).
Mizoguchi, T. et al. Osterix marks distinct waves of primitive and definitive stromal progenitors during bone marrow development. Dev. Cell 29, 340–349 (2014).
Chen, Q. et al. Fate decision of mesenchymal stem cells: adipocytes or osteoblasts? Cell Death Differ. 23, 1128–1139 (2016).
Kubo, H. et al. Identification of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-transcription factors by microarray and knockdown analyses, and signature molecule-marked MSC in bone marrow by immunohistochemistry. Genes Cells 14, 407–424 (2009).
Medyouf, H. et al. Myelodysplastic cells in patients reprogram mesenchymal stromal cells to establish a transplantable stem cell niche disease unit. Cell Stem Cell 14, 824–837 (2014).
Pearce, D. J. et al. AML engraftment in the NOD/SCID assay reflects the outcome of AML: implications for our understanding of the heterogeneity of AML. Blood 107, 1166–1173 (2006).
Kode, A. et al. Leukaemogenesis induced by an activating β-catenin mutation in osteoblasts. Nature 506, 240–244 (2014).
Takam Kamga, P. et al. Notch signalling drives bone marrow stromal cell-mediated chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia. Oncotarget 7, 21713–21727 (2016).
Lu, H., Ward, M. G., Adeola, O. & Ajuwon, K. M. Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and gene expression-crosstalk between TGFβ and wnt signaling pathways. Mol. Biol. Rep. 40, 5237–5245 (2013).
Wagegg, M. et al. Hypoxia promotes osteogenesis but suppresses adipogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 dependent manner. PLoS ONE 7, e46483 (2012).
Moura, I. C., Hermine, O., Lacombe, C. & Mayeux, P. Erythropoiesis and transferrin receptors. Curr. Opin. Hematol. 22, 193–198 (2015).
Ganz, T. & Nemeth, E. Iron metabolism: interactions with normal and disordered erythropoiesis. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Med. 2, a011668 (2012).
Hardouin, P., Rharass, T. & Lucas, S. Bone marrow adipose tissue: to be or not to be a typical adipose tissue? Front. Endocrinol. 7, 85 (2016).
Brown, K. K. et al. A novel N-aryl tyrosine activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma reverses the diabetic phenotype of the Zucker diabetic fatty rat. Diabetes 48, 1415–1424 (1999).
Faber, K. et al. CDX2-driven leukemogenesis involves KLF4 repression and deregulated PPARγ signaling. J. Clin. Invest. 123, 299–314 (2013).
Konopleva, M. et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor ligands are potent inducers of differentiation and apoptosis in leukemias. Mol. Cancer Ther. 3, 1249–1262 (2004).
Tsao, T. et al. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and its coactivator DRIP205 in cellular responses to CDDO (RTA-401) in acute myelogenous leukemia. Cancer Res. 70, 4949–4960 (2010).
Hartwell, K. A. et al. Niche-based screening identifies small-molecule inhibitors of leukemia stem cells. Nat. Chem. Biol. 9, 840–848 (2013).
Elghetany, M. T., Ge, Y., Patel, J., Martinez, J. & Uhrova, H. Flow cytometric study of neutrophilic granulopoiesis in normal bone marrow using an expanded panel of antibodies: correlation with morphologic assessments. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 18, 36–41 (2004).
Lakschevitz, F. S. et al. Identification of neutrophil surface marker changes in health and inflammation using high-throughput screening flow cytometry. Exp. Cell Res. 342, 200–209 (2016).
Ambrosi, T. H. et al. Adipocyte accumulation in the bone marrow during obesity and aging impairs stem cell-based hematopoietic and bone regeneration. Cell Stem Cell 20, 771–784 (2017).
Zhou, B. O. et al. Bone marrow adipocytes promote the regeneration of stem cells and haematopoiesis by secreting SCF. Nat. Cell Biol. 19, 891–903 (2017).
Ding, L. & Morrison, S. J. Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches. Nature 495, 231–235 (2013).
Mendez-Ferrer, S. et al. Mesenchymal and haematopoietic stem cells form a unique bone marrow niche. Nature 466, 829–834 (2010).
Yu, V. W. et al. Distinctive mesenchymal-parenchymal cell pairings govern B cell differentiation in the bone marrow. Stem Cell Rep. 7, 220–235 (2016).
Panaroni, C. & Wu, J. Y. Interactions between B lymphocytes and the osteoblast lineage in bone marrow. Calcif. Tissue Int. 93, 261–268 (2013).
Adler, B. J., Green, D. E., Pagnotti, G. M., Chan, M. E. & Rubin, C. T. High fat diet rapidly suppresses B lymphopoiesis by disrupting the supportive capacity of the bone marrow niche. PLoS ONE 9, e90639 (2014).
Doucette, C. R. et al. A high fat diet increases bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) but does not alter trabecular or cortical bone mass in C57BL/6J mice. J. Cell. Physiol. 230, 2032–2037 (2015).
Sahdo, B. et al. Body temperature during hibernation is highly correlated with a decrease in circulating innate immune cells in the brown bear (Ursus arctos): a common feature among hibernators? Int. J. Med. Sci. 10, 508–514 (2013).
Boyd, A. L., Salci, K. R., Shapovalova, Z., McIntyre, B. A. & Bhatia, M. Nonhematopoietic cells represent a more rational target of in vivo hedgehog signaling affecting normal or acute myeloid leukemia progenitors. Exp. Hematol. 41, 858–869 (2013).
Shultz, L. D. et al. Multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunologic function in NOD/LtSz-scid mice. J. Immunol. 154, 180–191 (1995).
Tersey, S. A. et al. Islet β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress precedes the onset of type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse model. Diabetes 61, 818–827 (2012).
Subramanian, A. et al. Gene set enrichment analysis: a knowledge-based approach for interpreting genome-wide expression profiles. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 102, 15545–15550 (2005).
Pricola, K. L., Kuhn, N. Z., Haleem-Smith, H., Song, Y. & Tuan, R. S. Interleukin-6 maintains bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell stemness by an ERK1/2-dependent mechanism. J. Cell. Biochem. 108, 577–588 (2009).
Fleury, A. et al. Hedgehog associated to microparticles inhibits adipocyte differentiation via a non-canonical pathway. Sci. Rep. 6, 23479 (2016).
Huang, Y. et al. γ-secretase inhibitor induces adipogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells by regulation of Notch and PPAR-γ. Cell Prolif. 43, 147–156 (2010).
Styner, M., Sen, B., Xie, Z., Case, N. & Rubin, J. Indomethacin promotes adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells through a cyclooxygenase independent mechanism. J. Cell. Biochem. 111, 1042–1050 (2010).
Yanik, S. C., Baker, A. H., Mann, K. K. & Schlezinger, J. J. Organotins are potent activators of PPARγ and adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells. Toxicol. Sci. 122, 476–488 (2011).
Benoit, Y. D. et al. Cooperation between HNF-1α, Cdx2, and GATA-4 in initiating an enterocytic differentiation program in a normal human intestinal epithelial progenitor cell line. Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 298, G504–G517 (2010).