(a) Percentage of animals expressing lin-4::YFP after 24 h of exposure to either Escherichia coli OP50 or Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. Error bars, s.d. n = 3 experiments of >100 animals. (b) Percentage of animals failing to arrest development after 24 h at 350 mM NaCl. Error bars, s.d. n = 3 experiments of >100 animals. (c) Percentage of wild-type, lin-45(n2018) and daf-16(mu86) mutants with a divided M-cell after 7 days without food in S-basal at 20 °C. Error bars, s.e.m. n = 4 experiments of >100 animals. (d) Model for how maternal exposure to osmotic stress inhibits DAF-2 activity in the germline and affects progeny response to osmotic stress. See text for details. Red, embryo; green, germline; purple, intestine. The quantified results are presented as mean ± s.d. (a,b) and s.e.m. (c) using ANOVA (a) and two-tailed t-test (b,c). ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, ∗∗∗P < 0.001, ∗∗∗∗P < 0.0001 were considered significant. NS, not significant. See Statistics Source Data in Supplementary Table 6.