(a) Representative Immunohistochemistry showing EGFR expression in tumour cells/hepatocytes of HCC. Scoring (0, +, ++, +++) was performed according to the scale described below resulting in the generation of Table 1a. Scale bar indicates 50 μm. (b–e) OS (b,d) and DFS (c,e) of HCC patients of the Chinese (b,c: 129 patients (n = 70 negative for EGFR; n = 59 positive for EGFR)) and European cohort (d,e: 108 patients (n = 69 negative for EGFR; n = 39 positive for EGFR)) with or without EGFR expression in hepatocytes. (f) Representative immunohistochemistry showing EGFR and CD68 staining (0, +, ++) in liver macrophages of human HCC. Scoring (0, +, ++, +++) was performed according to the scale described below resulting in the generation of Table 1b. Scale bar indicates 50 μm. (g) Representative immunofluorescent EGFR and CD68 co-staining in fresh frozen human HCC tissue (n = 12). Nuclei (DAPI, blue), CD68 (Alexa 488, green) and EGFR (Alexa 594, red), merged (bottom right). White arrows indicate double positive cells. Scale bar indicates 50 μm. Scoring system: 0 = negative staining (0%–10% positive), 1 =weak signal (10%–20% positive), 2 = intermediate signal (20%–50% positive) and 3 = strong signal (>50% positive) as previously described30. Log-rank test was used to assess statistical significance.