Cytokinesis is the process by which mitotic cells physically split in two following chromosome segregation. Dividing animal cells first ingress a cytokinetic furrow and then separate the plasma membrane by abscission. The general cytological events and several conserved molecular factors involved in cytokinesis have been known for many years. However, recent progress in microscopy, chemical genetics, biochemical reconstitution and biophysical methodology has tremendously increased our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. We discuss how recent insights have led to refined models of the distinct steps of animal cell cytokinesis, including anaphase spindle reorganization, division plane specification, actomyosin ring assembly and contraction, and abscission. We highlight how molecular signalling pathways coordinate the individual events to ensure faithful partitioning of the genome to emerging daughter cells.
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The authors thank M. Mishima, A. E. Smith, and M. R. Uehara for critical comments on the manuscript. Research in the Gerlich laboratory has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007-2013 under grant agreements n° 241548 (MitoSys) and n° 258068 (Systems Microscopy), a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF), and by an EMBO long-term fellowship to J. P. Fededa.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
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Fededa, J., Gerlich, D. Molecular control of animal cell cytokinesis. Nat Cell Biol 14, 440–447 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1038/ncb2482
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