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Containerless vitrification of mammalian oocytes and embryos


Adapting a proven method for flash-cooling protein crystals to the cryopreservation of live cells.

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Figure 1: Containerless vitrification and warming of embryos followed by normal development.


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The authors are indebted to Mark Lane for help with establishing the OPS technique and to Tenneille Ludwig for performing the embryo transfers. This research was supported by the National Cooperative Program on Non-Human In Vitro Fertilization and Preimplantation Embryo Development of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) through grant HD22023. A US patent covering this technology has been applied for (Forest and Lane, #60/104,266).

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Lane, M., Bavister, B., Lyons, E. et al. Containerless vitrification of mammalian oocytes and embryos. Nat Biotechnol 17, 1234–1236 (1999).

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