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South Korean biotechnology—a rising industrial and scientific powerhouse

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Figure 1: South Korean publications and patents in health biotechnology (1991–2002).

Illustration by R. Henretta


  1. 1

    National Health Insurance Corporation. National Health Insurance Statistical Yearbook, 1998 (National Health Insurance Corporation, Seoul, 1999).

  2. 2

    Ministry of Science and Technology. National Science and Technology Statistical Indicators, CD-ROM (Ministry of Science and Technology, Seoul, 2002).

  3. 3

    Science-Metrix. Benchmarking of Genomics and Health Biotechnology in Seven Developing Countries, 1991–2004. Report Prepared for University of Toronto, Joint Centre for Bioethics (Science-Metrix, Quebec, 2004). Data derived from information (subset of Science Citation Index Expanded Database) Prepared by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI, Philadelphia, PA, USA). © Institute for Scientific Information. All rights reserved.

  4. 4

    Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy/Korea Institute of S&T Evaluation and Planning (MOCIE/KISTEP). The 21st Century Frontier R&D Program. (MOCIE/KISTEP, Seoul, 2002).

  5. 5

    Nam, D. The Korea Times June 4 (2004).

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    Choi, Y.-R. Paradigm Shift in Korea's Science and Technology Policy (South Korea's Science and Technology Policy Institute, Seoul, 2001).

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    Hwang, W.S. et al. Science 303, 1669–1674 (2004).

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Publication of this supplement was supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, WA), Genome Canada (Ottawa, Canada), McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine (Toronto, Canada) and the Rockefeller Foundation (New York, NY). Special thanks to Archana Bhatt, Zoe Costa-von Aesch and James Renihan for patent analysis, Éric Archambault, Frédéric Bertrand and Grégoire Côté at Science-Metrix (Montréal, Canada) for analysis of publication data and to Nina Mansoori for her research assistance and the 29 South Korean experts who were interviewed for this study and provided their valuable time and input. The Canadian Program on Genomics and Global Health is primarily supported by Genome Canada through the Ontario Genomics Institute and by the Ontario Research and Development Challenge Fund. Funding partners are listed at P.A.S. is supported by a Canadian Institutes of Health Research Distinguished Investigator award. A.S.D. is supported by the McLaughlin Centre for Molecular Medicine, University of Toronto.

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Correspondence to Halla Thorsteinsdóttir.

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Wong, J., Quach, U., Thorsteinsdóttir, H. et al. South Korean biotechnology—a rising industrial and scientific powerhouse. Nat Biotechnol 22, DC42–DC47 (2004).

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