Cell-based cardiac repair offers the promise of rebuilding the injured heart from its component parts. Work began with committed cells such as skeletal myoblasts, but recently the field has expanded to explore an array of cell types, including bone marrow cells, endothelial progenitors, mesenchymal stem cells, resident cardiac stem cells, and both mouse and human embryonic stem cells. A related strategy for cardiac repair involves cell mobilization with factors such as cytokines. Translation of cell-based approaches to the clinic has progressed rapidly, and clinical trials using autologous skeletal myoblasts and bone marrow cells are under way. Many challenges remain before the vision of healing an infarct by muscle regeneration can be realized. Future research is likely to focus on improving our ability to guide the differentiation of stem cells, control their survival and proliferation, identify factors that mediate their homing and modulate the heart's innate inflammatory and fibrotic responses.
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