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The imitation game—a computational chemical approach to recognizing life

When is an artificial cell alive? A Turing test–like method may provide the answer.

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Figure 1: Different takes on Turing.


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We would like to thank Chick Wilson (Glasgow), Paula-Ann Duxbury (EPSRC) and our ChellNET colleagues ( for fruitful discussions. We would also like to thank the UK's Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council for funding under grants EP/D023343/1, EP/D021847/1, EP/D023327/1, EP/D023378/1, EP/D022304/1, EP/D022347/1, EP/D023904/1, EP/D023807/1 and EP/D023777/1.

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Cronin, L., Krasnogor, N., Davis, B. et al. The imitation game—a computational chemical approach to recognizing life. Nat Biotechnol 24, 1203–1206 (2006).

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