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Are Bt crops safe?

The US EPA's analysis of Bt crops finds that they pose no significant risk to the environment or to human health.

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  1. Biopesticides Registration Action Document (BRAD)—Bacillus thuringiensis Plant-Incorporated Protectants, US EPA, October 15, 2001.

  2. Title 7, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 340, Introduction of Organisms and Products Altered or Produced Through Genetic Engineering Which Are Plant Pests or Which There is Reason to Believe Are Plant Pests.

  3. Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 174, Procedures and Requirements for Plant-Incorporated Protectants.

  4. Title 7, United States Code, §§ 136–136y, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act.

  5. Title 21, United States Code, §§ 301–397, Federal, Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

  6. US National Academy of Sciences. Genetically Modified Pest-Protected Plants: Science and Regulation (National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2000).

  7. StarLink Corn Regulatory Archive, US EPA. biopesticides/pips/starlink_corn_archive.htm

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Edward Brandt, Doug Gurian-Sherman, Linda Hollis, William Jordan, Suzanne Krolikowski, Sharlene Matten, Felicia Wu Morris, Willie Nelson, Alan Reynolds, Robyn Rose, Sasha Sicks, Brian Steinwand, Toby Tiktinski, Gail Tomimatsu, Robert Torla, Michael T. Watson and Chris Wozniak also contributed by being part of the EPA's Bt Crop Reassessment Teams.

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Mendelsohn, M., Kough, J., Vaituzis, Z. et al. Are Bt crops safe?. Nat Biotechnol 21, 1003–1009 (2003).

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