Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

What brown cannot do for you

Chromogenic stains have long been used in immunodiagnostic assays, but fluorescence-based readouts could supplant them as emphasis shifts away from diagnosis to prediction by means of quantifiable results.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: The relationship between AQUA score and absolute protein concentration as measured by ELISA assay as a function of antibody concentration.
Figure 2: A theoretical series of curves showing relationships between expression and disease outcome.

References

  1. 1

    McCormick, D., Yu, C., Hobbs, C. & Hall, P.A. Histopathology 22, 543–547 (1993).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Hall, P.A. & Lane, D.P. J. Pathol. 172, 1–4 (1994).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    McGuire, W.L. Annu. Rev. Med. 26, 353–363 (1975).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Garola, R.E. & McGuire, W.L. Cancer Res. 38, 2216–2220 (1978).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Pertschuk, L.P. et al. Cancer 46, 2896–2901 (1980).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Bezwoda, W.R., Esser, J.D., Dansey, R., Kessel, I. & Lange, M. Cancer 68, 867–872 (1991).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Harvey, J.M., Clark, G.M., Osborne, C.K. & Allred, D.C. J. Clin. Oncol. 17, 1474–1481 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Collins, L.C., Botero, M.L. & Schnitt, S.J. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 123, 16–20 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Schnitt, S.J. J. Clin. Oncol. 24, 1797–1799 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Pauletti, G., Godolphin, W., Press, M.F. & Slamon, D.J. Oncogene 13, 63–72 (1996).

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Press, M.F. et al. J. Clin. Oncol. 20, 3095–3105 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Press, M.F. et al. Clin. Cancer Res. 11, 6598–6607 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Mass, R.D. et al. Clin. Breast Cancer 6, 240–246 (2005).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Hasui, K. et al. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 51, 1169–1176 (2003).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Levenson, R.M. Cytometry (in the press).

  16. 16

    McCabe, A., Dolled-Filhart, M., Camp, R.L. & Rimm, D.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 97, 1808–1815 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Camp, R.L., Chung, G.G. & Rimm, D.L. Nat. Med. 8, 1323–1327 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    van de Vijver, M.J. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 347, 1999–2009 (2002).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Paik, S. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 351, 2817–2826 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Yoon, S.O., Shin, S. & Lipscomb, E.A. Cancer Res. 66, 2732–2739 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Makretsov, N.A. et al. Clin. Cancer Res. 10, 6143–6151 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Alonso, S.R. et al. Am. J. Pathol. 164, 193–203 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Thanks to M. Dolled-Filhart, C. Kleer and C. Allred for critical review of this manuscript. Work in the Rimm laboratory is supported by grants R01 CA 114277, R33 CA 106709, R33 CA 110511 and an Avon Patients for Progress Grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Breast Cancer Alliance of Greenwich, Connecticut, USA. Dr. Rimm is a founder, stockholder and consultant to HistoRx, the exclusive licensee of the Yale owned AQUA patent.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rimm, D. What brown cannot do for you. Nat Biotechnol 24, 914–916 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt0806-914

Download citation

Further reading

Search

Quick links