Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Compliance costs for regulatory approval of new biotech crops

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. Falk-Zepeda, J.B., Traxler, G. & Nelson, R.G. Am. J. Agric. Econ. 82, 360–369 (2000).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Huang, J., Rozelle, S., Pray, C. & Wang, Q. Science 295, 674–677 (2002).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Jaffe, G. Withering on the Vine: Will Agricultural Biotechnology's Promise Bear Fruit? (Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington DC, 2005). <> (Accessed January 12, 2007).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Bradford, K.J., Van Deynze, A., Gutterson, N., Parrott, W. & Strauss, S.H. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 439–444 (2005).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. McElroy, D. Nat. Biotechnol. 21, 996–1002 (2003).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. Miller, H.I. & Conko, G. Issues Sci. Technol. 21, 76–80 (2005).

    Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by the Illinois-Missouri Biotechnology Alliance from a USDA special grant.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Kalaitzandonakes, N., Alston, J. & Bradford, K. Compliance costs for regulatory approval of new biotech crops. Nat Biotechnol 25, 509–511 (2007).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing