Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Intensification for the nine billion

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Higher productivity technologies.


  1. 1

    de Soysa, I. et al. To Cultivate Peace: Agriculture in a World of Conflict (Oslo, International Peace Research Institute, 1999).

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Bongaarts, J. Science 282, 419 (1998).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    CGIAR News December, 8– 9 (1998).

  4. 4

    World Bank. World Development Report 1992: Development and the Environment p. 27 (New York, Oxford University Press, 1992).

  5. 5

    Seckler, D. The new era of water management: from "dry" to "wet" water savings. Issues in Agriculture 8 (1996).

  6. 6

    Pinstrup-Andersen, P. & Pandya-Lorch, R. Can everybody be well-fed by 2020 without damaging natural resources? p. 9 (CIMMYT, Mexico City, 1997).

    Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Norman E. Borlaug, personal communication.

  8. 8

    International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). CIMMYT in 1996–97: widening the circle of partnerships p. 24 (CIMMYT, Mexico City, 1997).

  9. 9

    Borlaug, N.E. & Dowswell, C.R. The acid lands: one of agriculture's last frontiers. 5–15 in Plant–soil interactions at low pH (ed. Moniz, A.C. et al. ) (Brazil, Brazilian Soil Science Society, 1997).

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Reeves, T.G. Sustainable intensification of agriculture (Mexico City, CIMMYT, 1998).

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Reeves, T. Intensification for the nine billion. Nat Biotechnol 17, BV33–BV34 (1999).

Download citation


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing