Research Article | Published:

Viral sequences enable efficient and tissue-specific expression of transgenes in Xenopus

Nature Biotechnology volume 16, pages 253257 (1998) | Download Citation



Expression of transgenes within a single generation by direct DNA injection into vertebrate embryos has been plagued by inefficient and nonuniform gene expression. We report a novel strategy for efficient and stable expression of transgenes driven by both ubiquitous and tissue-specific promoters by direct DNA injection into developing Xenopus laevis embryos. This strategy involves flanking expression cassettes of interest with inverted terminal repeat sequences (ITRs) from adeno-associated virus. Our results suggest that the ITR strategy may be generally applicable to other systems, such as zebra fish and embryonic stem cells, and may enable tissue-specific expression of transgenes in problematic contexts.

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  1. Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0613.

    • Yuchang Fu
    • , Yibin Wang
    •  & Sylvia M. Evans


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Correspondence to Sylvia M. Evans.

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