Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Tuning up T-cell receptors

T-cell receptors with higher affinity for tumor antigens are discovered by harnessing T-cell development.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Overview of the T-cell-based TCR optimization strategy.


  1. 1

    Fesnak, A.D., June, C.H. & Levine, B.L. Nat. Rev. Cancer 16, 566–581 (2016).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Schmitt, T.M. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. (2017).

  3. 3

    Morgan, R.A. et al. Science 314, 126–129 (2006).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Rossjohn, J. et al. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 33, 169–200 (2015).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Aleksic, M. et al. Eur. J. Immunol. 42, 3174–3179 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Cameron, B.J. et al. Sci. Transl. Med. 5, 197ra103 (2013).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Smith, S.N., Harris, D.T. & Kranz, D.M. Methods Mol. Biol. 1319, 95–141 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Li, Y. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 23, 349–354 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    von Boehmer, H. et al. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 11, 135–142 (1999).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Pennington, D.J., Silva-Santos, B. & Hayday, A.C. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 17, 108–115 (2005).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael E Birnbaum.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rappazzo, C., Birnbaum, M. Tuning up T-cell receptors. Nat Biotechnol 35, 1145–1146 (2017).

Download citation


Quick links