Letter

Digital-to-biological converter for on-demand production of biologics

  • Nature Biotechnology volume 35, pages 672675 (2017)
  • doi:10.1038/nbt.3859
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Abstract

Manufacturing processes for biological molecules in the research laboratory have failed to keep pace with the rapid advances in automization and parellelization1,2,3. We report the development of a digital-to-biological converter for fully automated, versatile and demand-based production of functional biologics starting from DNA sequence information. Specifically, DNA templates, RNA molecules, proteins and viral particles were produced in an automated fashion from digitally transmitted DNA sequences without human intervention.

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Acknowledgements

The authors thank C. Beard, S. Farah, O. Fetzer, K. Han, C. Hutchison, A. Lee, D. Lomelin, A. Nandi, T. Newman-Lehman, T. Peterson, S. Riedmuller, J. Robinson, H. Smith, J. Strauss, J. Thielmier, L. Warden, M. Winstead, and A. Witschi for their contributions to this work, and the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (contract HR0011-13-C-0073 for D.G.G. and J.C.V.) for funding aspects of this work.

Author information

Author notes

    • Kent S Boles
    •  & Krishna Kannan

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Synthetic Genomics, Inc., La Jolla, California, USA.

    • Kent S Boles
    • , Krishna Kannan
    • , John Gill
    • , Martina Felderman
    • , Heather Gouvis
    • , Bolyn Hubby
    • , Kurt I Kamrud
    • , J Craig Venter
    •  & Daniel G Gibson

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Contributions

J.C.V. and D.G.G. conceived the study; K.S.B., K.K., J.G., H.G., B.H., K.I.K. and D.G.G. designed experiments and analyzed data; K.S.B., K.K., M.F. and D.G.G. performed experiments; and K.S.B., K.K., J.C.V. and D.G.G. wrote the paper.

Competing interests

The authors are or have been employed by Synthetic Genomics, Inc. (SGI), a privately held company, and may hold stock or stock options. SGI has filed provisional applications with the US Patent and Trademark Office on aspects of this research (PCT/US2013/055454).

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel G Gibson.

Integrated supplementary information

Supplementary information

PDF files

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    Supplementary Text and Figures

    Supplementary Figures 1–10

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    Supplementary Tables

    Supplementary Tables 1–12

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    Supplementary Codes

    Oligonucleotide Designer Script

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    Supplementary Data

    Amplicon Sequencing

Videos

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    Oligonucleotide Synthesis.

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    Oligonucleotide Deprotection.

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    Oligonucleotide Pooling.

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    DNA Assembly.