Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

US National Academies report misses the mark

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution

Access options

Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.


  1. The National Academies. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects, prepublication download (National Academies Press, 2016).

  2. The White House. National Bioeconomy Blueprint (April 2012).

  3. Executive Office of the President of the United States. (2 July 2015).

  4. Brooks, G. (19 August 2003).

  5. Brookes, G. & Barfoot, P. GM Crops 6, 13–46 (2015).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Canola Council of Canada. An Agronomic & Economic Assessment of Transgenic Canola (Canola Council, Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 2001).

  7. Fernandez, W., Paz, R., Zambrano, P. & Falck-Zepeda, J.F. GM soybeans in Bolivia. 13th ICABR conference, Ravello, Italy, 18–20 June 2009.

  8. Fischer, J. & Tozer, P. Evaluation of the Environmental and Economic Impact of Roundup Ready Canola in the Western Australian Crop Production System. Curtin University of Technology Technical Report 11/2009 (Curtin University of Technology, Bentley, Australia, 2009).

    Google Scholar 

  9. Gomez-Barbero, M., Barbel, J. & Rodriguez-Cerezo, E. Adoption and Performance of the First GM crop in EU agriculture: Bt Maize in Spain. JRC Technical Report, EUR 22778 (Joint Research Centre, EU Commission, Brussels, 2008).

    Google Scholar 

  10. Gouse, M. AgBioForum 15, 163–174 (2012).

    Google Scholar 

  11. Gusta, M., Smyth, S., Belcher, K., Phillips, P. & Castle, D. AgBioForum 14, 1–12 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  12. Klumper, W. & Qaim, M. A meta-analysis of the impacts of genetically modified crops. PLoS ONE 9, e111629 (2014).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Carpenter, J.E. Nat. Biotechnol. 28, 319–321 (2010).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. Raney, T. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 17, 1–5 (2006).

    Google Scholar 

  15. Rinker, K. et al. Crop Sci. 54, 1419–1432 (2014).

    Google Scholar 

  16. Giddings, L.V. U.S. Innovation Files (3 June 2016).

    Google Scholar 

  17. James, C. Brief 51: 20th anniversary (1996 to 2015) of the Global Commercialization of Biotech Crops and Biotech Crop Highlights in 2015 (ISAAA, New York, 2016).

    Google Scholar 

  18. Powell, M., Delborne, J. & Colin, M. J. Public Deliberation 7, 4 (2011).

    Google Scholar 

  19. Rowe, G. et al. Public Underst. Sci. 17, 419–441 (2008).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hakim, D. The New York Times (31 October 2016).

    Google Scholar 

  21. National Research Council. Field Testing Genetically Modified Organisms: Framework for Decisions (National Academy Press, 1989).

  22. Conko, G. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 34, 493–503 (2016).

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. Atkinson, R.D. & Giddings, L.V. (25 November 2015).

  24. Giddings, L.V. (21 April 2016).

  25. Giddings, L.V. & Chassy, B.M. Sci. Progress (1 July 2009).

    Google Scholar 

  26. Barbero, R. et al. (16 September, 2016).

  27. McDougall, P. (September 2011).

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to L Val Giddings.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Giddings, L., Miller, H. US National Academies report misses the mark. Nat Biotechnol 34, 1226–1228 (2016).

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:

This article is cited by


Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing