• A Corrigendum to this article was published on 09 June 2016

This article has been updated

Abstract

The foreign body response is an immune-mediated reaction that can lead to the failure of implanted medical devices and discomfort for the recipient1,2,3,4,5,6. There is a critical need for biomaterials that overcome this key challenge in the development of medical devices. Here we use a combinatorial approach for covalent chemical modification to generate a large library of variants of one of the most widely used hydrogel biomaterials, alginate. We evaluated the materials in vivo and identified three triazole-containing analogs that substantially reduce foreign body reactions in both rodents and, for at least 6 months, in non-human primates. The distribution of the triazole modification creates a unique hydrogel surface that inhibits recognition by macrophages and fibrous deposition. In addition to the utility of the compounds reported here, our approach may enable the discovery of other materials that mitigate the foreign body response.

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Change history

  • 18 April 2016

    In the version of this article initially published, one author, Adam C. Graham, his affiliation, and his contribution were omitted. In addition, two acknowledgments, to W. Salmon and J. Wyckoff, were omitted. The errors have been corrected in the HTML and PDF versions of the article.

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Acknowledgements

This work was supported jointly by the JDRF and Leona M. and the Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust (grant 3-SRA-2014-285-M-R), National Institutes of Health (NIH grants EB000244, EB000351, DE013023 and CA151884), NIH NIBIB (P41EB015871-27), MIT SkolTech initiative (J.W.K.), JDRF and the Department of Defense/Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs (DOD/CDMRP postdoctoral fellowships 3-2013-178 and W81XWH-13-1-0215 for O.V.) and through a generous gift from the Tayebati Family Foundation. G.C.W. is supported by National Institutes of Health (NIH grants R01DK093909 and P30DK036836, the Joslin Diabetes Research Center and its Advanced Microscopy Core), as well as the Diabetes Research and Wellness Foundation. J.O. is supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH/NIDDK) R01DK091526 and the Chicago Diabetes Project. This work was also supported in part by the Koch Institute Support (core) grant P30-CA14051 from the National Cancer Institute. We also thank the Koch Institute Swanson Biotechnology Center for technical support, specifically Tang Histology Facility, Microscopy, Flow Cytometry, Nanotechnology Materials, and Applied Therapeutics and Whole Animal Imaging. The authors would like to acknowledge the use of resources at the Harvard University Center for Nanoscale Systems and W.M. Keck Biological Imaging Facility (Whitehead Institute). The authors would also like to thank W. Salmon and J. Wyckoff for their assistance.

Author information

Author notes

    • Arturo J Vegas
    • , Minglin Ma
    • , Kaitlin Bratlie
    •  & Andrew R Bader

    Present addresses: Department of Chemistry, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA (A.J.V.); Department of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA (M.M.); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA, and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA (K.B.); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (A.R.B.).

Affiliations

  1. David H Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Arturo J Vegas
    • , Omid Veiseh
    • , Joshua C Doloff
    • , Minglin Ma
    • , Hok Hei Tam
    • , Kaitlin Bratlie
    • , Jie Li
    • , Andrew R Bader
    • , Erin Langan
    • , Karsten Olejnik
    • , Patrick Fenton
    • , Alan Chiu
    • , Sean Siebert
    • , Katherine Tang
    • , Siddharth Jhunjhunwala
    • , Stephanie Aresta-Dasilva
    • , Nimit Dholakia
    • , Raj Thakrar
    • , Thema Vietti
    • , Michael Chen
    • , Robert Langer
    •  & Daniel G Anderson
  2. Department of Anesthesiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Arturo J Vegas
    • , Joshua C Doloff
    • , Minglin Ma
    • , Jie Li
    • , Andrew R Bader
    • , Erin Langan
    • , Karsten Olejnik
    • , Patrick Fenton
    • , Alan Chiu
    • , Sean Siebert
    • , Katherine Tang
    • , Siddharth Jhunjhunwala
    • , Stephanie Aresta-Dasilva
    • , Nimit Dholakia
    • , Raj Thakrar
    • , Thema Vietti
    • , Michael Chen
    • , Robert Langer
    •  & Daniel G Anderson
  3. Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Omid Veiseh
    • , Hok Hei Tam
    • , Kaitlin Bratlie
    • , Robert Langer
    •  & Daniel G Anderson
  4. MIT Spectroscopy Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Jeon Woong Kang
  5. Section on Islet Cell and Regenerative Biology, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Jennifer Hollister-Locke
    • , Josh Cohen
    • , Karolina Siniakowicz
    •  & Gordon C Weir
  6. Department of Surgery, Division of Transplantation, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

    • Matthew A Bochenek
    • , Meirigeng Qi
    • , James McGarrigle
    •  & Jose Oberholzer
  7. Center for Nanoscale Systems, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Adam C Graham
  8. Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Stephen Lyle
  9. Diabetes Center of Excellence, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

    • David M Harlan
    • , Dale L Greiner
    •  & Daniel G Anderson
  10. Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Robert Langer
    •  & Daniel G Anderson
  11. Division of Health Science Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.

    • Robert Langer

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Contributions

A.J.V., O.V., J.C.D., M.M., K.B., J.L., A.R.B., E.L., K.O., P.F., J.W.K., J.H.-L., M.A.B., A.C., S.S., K.T., S.J., S.A.-D., N.D., R.T., T.V., M.C., J.C., K.S., M.Q. and J.M. designed and performed experiments, and analyzed data. H.H.T. assisted with data processing and data presentation. A.C.G. assisted with SEM imaging. S.L. assisted with histology. D.M.H., D.L.G., J.O. and G.C.W. provided conceptual advice and technical support. A.J.V. and D.G.A. wrote the paper. R.L. and D.G.A. supervised the study. All authors discussed the results and commented on the manuscript.

Competing interests

A.J.V., O.V., J.C.D., M.M., K.B., R.L. and D.G.A. declare financial interest in patents filed by MIT on the material and hydrogel capsule technology.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Daniel G Anderson.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt.3462

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