We thank T.Y. Feng, Academia Sinca, Taiwan, for providing the Hrap and Pflp gene constructs and African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) for negotiating a royalty-free license for these genes from the patent holder. This research was supported by USAID and IITA. We appreciate technical assistance from F. Sebulime, F. Kato and A. Muwonge.
Supplementary Figures 1–5, Supplementary Tables 1 and 2 and Supplementary Methods