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Patterns of technological innovation in biotech

Applying theories of innovation to biotech; an analysis of the evolution of three classes of therapeutic biotechnologies.

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Figure 1: Stages of the technology life cycle and theories of innovation.
Figure 2: Technological innovation in SGT.
Figure 3: Technological innovation in ONTs.
Figure 4: Technological innovation in MATs.
Figure 5: A plot of phase 1 initiation dates for approved MATs and S-curve of publications on MATs.


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This work was supported, in part, by the ACTA Foundation and the National Biomedical Research Foundation. The authors thank J. Janice Reichert (Tufts Center for the Study of Drug Development) for her generous consultation and sharing data on mAb development, I. Morgan (Finance Department, Bentley University) for his invaluable insights into biotech finance and management, and our colleagues and students for their many comments and insights. This work was presented, in part, at the Advances in Biopharmaceuticals, Keystone Symposia, 2010.

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Correspondence to Fred D Ledley.

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McNamee, L., Ledley, F. Patterns of technological innovation in biotech. Nat Biotechnol 30, 937–943 (2012).

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