Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Silicon dreams of cells into symbols

Diverse mathematical models combine to create a comprehensive whole-cell computational model of a human pathogen.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Whole-cell simulation of M. genitalium.


  1. 1

    Karr, J.R. et al. Cell 150, 389–401 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Tomita, M. Trends Biotechnol. 19, 205–210 (2001).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Ishii, N., Robert, M., Nakayama, Y., Kanai, A. & Tomita, M. J. Biotechnol. 113, 281–294 (2004).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Guyton, A.C., Coleman, T.G. & Granger, H.J. Annu. Rev. Physiol. 34, 13–44 (1972).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Noble, D. Physiology (Bethesda) 19, 191–197 (2004).

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Shoda, L. et al. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 161, 250–267 (2010).

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Edwards, J.S., Covert, M. & Palsson, B.O. Environ. Microbiol. 4, 133–140 (2002).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Rosen, R. Life Itself: a Comprehensive Enquiry into the Nature, Origin and Fabrication of Life. Complexity in Ecological Systems (Columbia University Press, 2005).

    Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Letelier, J.-C. & Soto-Andrade, J. J. Theor. Biol. 238, 949–961 (2006).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Gunawardena, J. Mol. Biol. Cell 23, 517–519 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    van Noort, V. et al. Mol. Syst. Biol. 8, 571 (2012).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Yus, E. et al. Science 326, 1263–1268 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Güell, M. et al. Science 326, 1268–1271 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Kühner, S. et al. Science 326, 1235–1240 (2009).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15

    Dror, R.O., Dirks, R.M., Grossman, J.P., Xu, H. & Shaw, D.E. Annu. Rev. Biophys. 41, 429–452 (2012).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jeremy Gunawardena.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The author declares no competing financial interests.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Gunawardena, J. Silicon dreams of cells into symbols. Nat Biotechnol 30, 838–840 (2012).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links