Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Biomarkers in aggregate

Implantable devices that measure the cumulative release of biomarkers promise new diagnostic options.

This is a preview of subscription content

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.


All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: The aggregation of functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, also called magnetic relaxation switches (MRSw), in the presence of biomarkers decreases the transverse relaxivity (T2) of surrounding water protons, generating a signal detectable using magnetic resonance relaxometry.


  1. 1

    Ling, Y. et al. Nat. Biotechnol. 29, 273–277 (2011).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Daniel, K.D. et al. Biosens. Bioelectron. 24, 3252–3257 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Thygesen, K. et al. Eur. Heart J. 31, 2197–2204 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Apple, F.S. Clin. Chem. 55, 1303–1306 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Morrow, D.A. & Antman, E.M. Clin. Chem. 55, 5–8 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Wilson, S.R. et al. Am. Heart J. 158, 386–391 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Reichlin, T. et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 361, 858–867 (2009).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    de Lemos, J.A. et al. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 304, 2503–2512 (2010).

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Fred S Apple.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

F.S.A. has consulted for and received research grant funding for several biomarker companies that market the biomarkers discussed in the paper reviewed. These include Abbott Diagnostics, Beckman Coulter, Siemens, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, Radiometer, Roche, BRAHMS, Alere/Biosite and Response Biomedical.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Apple, F. Biomarkers in aggregate. Nat Biotechnol 29, 236–237 (2011).

Download citation

Further reading


Quick links