Skip to main content

Thank you for visiting nature.com. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, we recommend you use a more up to date browser (or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer). In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we are displaying the site without styles and JavaScript.

Reconstructing the genetic history of late Neanderthals

This article has been updated

Abstract

Although it has previously been shown that Neanderthals contributed DNA to modern humans1,2, not much is known about the genetic diversity of Neanderthals or the relationship between late Neanderthal populations at the time at which their last interactions with early modern humans occurred and before they eventually disappeared. Our ability to retrieve DNA from a larger number of Neanderthal individuals has been limited by poor preservation of endogenous DNA3 and contamination of Neanderthal skeletal remains by large amounts of microbial and present-day human DNA3,4,5. Here we use hypochlorite treatment6 of as little as 9 mg of bone or tooth powder to generate between 1- and 2.7-fold genomic coverage of five Neanderthals who lived around 39,000 to 47,000 years ago (that is, late Neanderthals), thereby doubling the number of Neanderthals for which genome sequences are available. Genetic similarity among late Neanderthals is well predicted by their geographical location, and comparison to the genome of an older Neanderthal from the Caucasus2,7 indicates that a population turnover is likely to have occurred, either in the Caucasus or throughout Europe, towards the end of Neanderthal history. We find that the bulk of Neanderthal gene flow into early modern humans originated from one or more source populations that diverged from the Neanderthals that were studied here at least 70,000 years ago, but after they split from a previously sequenced Neanderthal from Siberia2 around 150,000 years ago. Although four of the Neanderthals studied here post-date the putative arrival of early modern humans into Europe, we do not detect any recent gene flow from early modern humans in their ancestry.

Access options

Rent or Buy article

Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

from$8.99

All prices are NET prices.

Figure 1: Specimen information and the effects of 0.5% hypochlorite treatment.
Figure 2: Phylogenetic relationships of late Neanderthals.
Figure 3: Proximity to the introgressing Neanderthal populations in present-day and ancient humans calculated using D(Neanderthal1, Neanderthal2; non-African, African).

Accession codes

Primary accessions

European Nucleotide Archive

NCBI Reference Sequence

Change history

  • 28 March 2018

    In the original PDF version of this Letter, Extended Data Tables 1-4 were corrupted; this has been corrected online.

References

  1. 1

    Green, R. E. et al. A draft sequence of the Neandertal genome. Science 328, 710–722 (2010)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  2. 2

    Prüfer, K. et al. The complete genome sequence of a Neanderthal from the Altai Mountains. Nature 505, 43–49 (2014)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. 3

    Pääbo, S. et al. Genetic analyses from ancient DNA. Annu. Rev. Genet. 38, 645–679 (2004)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. 4

    Gilbert, M. T., Bandelt, H. J., Hofreiter, M. & Barnes, I. Assessing ancient DNA studies. Trends Ecol. Evol. 20, 541–544 (2005)

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. 5

    Krause, J. et al. A complete mtDNA genome of an early modern human from Kostenki, Russia. Curr. Biol. 20, 231–236 (2010)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. 6

    Korlevic´, P. et al. Reducing microbial and human contamination in DNA extractions from ancient bones and teeth. Biotechniques 59, 87–93 (2015)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. 7

    Prüfer, K. et al. A high-coverage Neandertal genome from Vindija Cave in Croatia. Science 358, 655–658 (2017)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. 8

    Hublin, J.-J. The modern human colonization of western Eurasia: when and where? Quat. Sci. Rev. 118, 194–210 (2015)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9

    Higham, T. et al. The timing and spatiotemporal patterning of Neanderthal disappearance. Nature 512, 306–309 (2014)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10

    Fu, Q. et al. Genome sequence of a 45,000-year-old modern human from western Siberia. Nature 514, 445–449 (2014)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. 11

    Fu, Q. et al. An early modern human from Romania with a recent Neanderthal ancestor. Nature 524, 216–219 (2015)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. 12

    Rougier, H. et al. Neandertal cannibalism and Neandertal bones used as tools in Northern Europe. Sci. Rep. 6, 29005 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. 13

    Semal, P. et al. New data on the late Neandertals: direct dating of the Belgian Spy fossils. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol. 138, 421–428 (2009)

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. 14

    Soressi, M. et al. in Préhistoire entre Vienne et Charente — Hommes et sociétés du Paléolithique mémoire 38 (eds Buisson-Catil, J. & Primault, J. ) 221–234 (Association des Publications Chauvinoises, 2010)

  15. 15

    Pinhasi, R., Higham, T. F., Golovanova, L. V. & Doronichev, V. B. Revised age of late Neanderthal occupation and the end of the Middle Paleolithic in the northern Caucasus. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 8611–8616 (2011)

    Article  ADS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  16. 16

    Briggs, A. W. et al. Patterns of damage in genomic DNA sequences from a Neandertal. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 14616–14621 (2007)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  17. 17

    Meyer, M. et al. A mitochondrial genome sequence of a hominin from Sima de los Huesos. Nature 505, 403–406 (2014)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18

    Dalén, L. et al. Partial genetic turnover in Neandertals: continuity in the East and population replacement in the West. Mol. Biol. Evol. 29, 1893–1897 (2012)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19

    Mendez, F. L., Poznik, G. D., Castellano, S. & Bustamante, C. D. The divergence of Neandertal and modern human Y chromosomes. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 98, 728–734 (2016)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. 20

    Meyer, M. et al. A high-coverage genome sequence from an archaic Denisovan individual. Science 338, 222–226 (2012)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. 21

    Mallick, S. et al. The Simons Genome Diversity Project: 300 genomes from 142 diverse populations. Nature 538, 201–206 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  22. 22

    Cavalli-Sforza, L. L., Menozzi, P. & Piazza, A. The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton Univ. Press, 1994)

  23. 23

    Svensson, A. et al. A 60 000 year Greenland stratigraphic ice core chronology. Clim. Past 4, 47–57 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24

    Hublin, J.-J. & Roebroeks, W. Ebb and flow or regional extinctions? On the character of Neandertal occupation of northern environments. C. R. Palevol 8, 503–509 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25

    Müller, U. C. et al. The role of climate in the spread of modern humans into Europe. Quat. Sci. Rev. 30, 273–279 (2011)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26

    Lazaridis, I. et al. Ancient human genomes suggest three ancestral populations for present-day Europeans. Nature 513, 409–413 (2014)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  27. 27

    Fu, Q. et al. The genetic history of Ice Age Europe. Nature 534, 200–205 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  28. 28

    Kuhlwilm, M. et al. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals. Nature 530, 429–433 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. 29

    Overmann, K. & Coolidge, F. Human species and mating systems: Neandertal–Homo sapiens reproductive isolation and the archaeological and fossil records. J. Anthropol. Sci. 91, 91–110 (2013)

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. 30

    Karmin, M. et al. A recent bottleneck of Y chromosome diversity coincides with a global change in culture. Genome Res. 25, 459–466 (2015)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. 31

    Dabney, J. et al. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of a Middle Pleistocene cave bear reconstructed from ultrashort DNA fragments. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 15758–15763 (2013)

    ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. 32

    Gansauge, M. T. & Meyer, M. Single-stranded DNA library preparation for the sequencing of ancient or damaged DNA. Nat. Protoc. 8, 737–748 (2013)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. 33

    Dabney, J. & Meyer, M. Length and GC-biases during sequencing library amplification: a comparison of various polymerase-buffer systems with ancient and modern DNA sequencing libraries. Biotechniques 52, 87–94 (2012)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. 34

    Kircher, M., Sawyer, S. & Meyer, M. Double indexing overcomes inaccuracies in multiplex sequencing on the Illumina platform. Nucleic Acids Res. 40, e3 (2012)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. 35

    Maricic, T., Whitten, M. & Pääbo, S. Multiplexed DNA sequence capture of mitochondrial genomes using PCR products. PLoS ONE 5, e14004 (2010)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  36. 36

    Fu, Q. et al. DNA analysis of an early modern human from Tianyuan Cave, China. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 110, 2223–2227 (2013)

    Article  ADS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37

    Welker, F. et al. Palaeoproteomic evidence identifies archaic hominins associated with the Châtelperronian at the Grotte du Renne. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 11162–11167 (2016)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. 38

    Renaud, G., Kircher, M., Stenzel, U. & Kelso, J. freeIbis: an efficient basecaller with calibrated quality scores for Illumina sequencers. Bioinformatics 29, 1208–1209 (2013)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. 39

    Renaud, G., Stenzel, U. & Kelso, J. leeHom: adaptor trimming and merging for Illumina sequencing reads. Nucleic Acids Res. 42, e141 (2014)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  40. 40

    Li, H. & Durbin, R. Fast and accurate long-read alignment with Burrows–Wheeler transform. Bioinformatics 26, 589–595 (2010)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  41. 41

    Li, H. et al. The Sequence Alignment/Map format and SAMtools. Bioinformatics 25, 2078–2079 (2009)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  42. 42

    Sawyer, S., Krause, J., Guschanski, K., Savolainen, V. & Pääbo, S. Temporal patterns of nucleotide misincorporations and DNA fragmentation in ancient DNA. PLoS ONE 7, e34131 (2012)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  43. 43

    Green, R. E. et al. A complete Neandertal mitochondrial genome sequence determined by high-throughput sequencing. Cell 134, 416–426 (2008)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  44. 44

    Briggs, A. W. et al. Targeted retrieval and analysis of five Neandertal mtDNA genomes. Science 325, 318–321 (2009)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. 45

    Skoglund, P. et al. Separating endogenous ancient DNA from modern day contamination in a Siberian Neandertal. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 111, 2229–2234 (2014)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. 46

    Brown, S. et al. Identification of a new hominin bone from Denisova Cave, Siberia using collagen fingerprinting and mitochondrial DNA analysis. Sci. Rep. 6, 23559 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. 47

    Haak, W. et al. Massive migration from the steppe was a source for Indo-European languages in Europe. Nature 522, 207–211 (2015)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  48. 48

    Gansauge, M. T. & Meyer, M. Selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules for ancient genome sequencing. Genome Res. 24, 1543–1549 (2014)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  49. 49

    Posth, C. et al. Deeply divergent archaic mitochondrial genome provides lower time boundary for African gene flow into Neanderthals. Nat. Commun. 8, 16046 (2017)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  50. 50

    Ermini, L. et al. Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tyrolean Iceman. Curr. Biol. 18, 1687–1693 (2008)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. 51

    Gilbert, M. T. P. et al. Paleo-Eskimo mtDNA genome reveals matrilineal discontinuity in Greenland. Science 320, 1787–1789 (2008)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. 52

    Fu, Q. et al. A revised timescale for human evolution based on ancient mitochondrial genomes. Curr. Biol. 23, 553–559 (2013)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  53. 53

    Krause, J. et al. The complete mitochondrial DNA genome of an unknown hominin from southern Siberia. Nature 464, 894–897 (2010)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. 54

    Reich, D. et al. Genetic history of an archaic hominin group from Denisova Cave in Siberia. Nature 468, 1053–1060 (2010)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  55. 55

    Sawyer, S. et al. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences from two Denisovan individuals. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 15696–15700 (2015)

    Article  ADS  CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56

    Horai, S. et al. Man’s place in Hominoidea revealed by mitochondrial DNA genealogy. J. Mol. Evol. 35, 32–43 (1992)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. 57

    Katoh, K. & Standley, D. M. MAFFT multiple sequence alignment software version 7: improvements in performance and usability. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30, 772–780 (2013)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. 58

    Tamura, K., Stecher, G., Peterson, D., Filipski, A. & Kumar, S. MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30, 2725–2729 (2013)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  59. 59

    Bouckaert, R. et al. BEAST 2: a software platform for Bayesian evolutionary analysis. PLOS Comput. Biol. 10, e1003537 (2014)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  60. 60

    Darriba, D., Taboada, G. L., Doallo, R. & Posada, D. jModelTest 2: more models, new heuristics and parallel computing. Nat. Methods 9, 772 (2012)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. 61

    Baele, G. et al. Improving the accuracy of demographic and molecular clock model comparison while accommodating phylogenetic uncertainty. Mol. Biol. Evol. 29, 2157–2167 (2012)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. 62

    Baele, G., Li, W. L. S., Drummond, A. J., Suchard, M. A. & Lemey, P. Accurate model selection of relaxed molecular clocks in Bayesian phylogenetics. Mol. Biol. Evol. 30, 239–243 (2013)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63

    Patterson, N. et al. Ancient admixture in human history. Genetics 192, 1065–1093 (2012)

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  64. 64

    Patterson, N., Price, A. L. & Reich, D. Population structure and eigenanalysis. PLoS Genet. 2, e190 (2006)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  65. 65

    Price, A. L. et al. Principal components analysis corrects for stratification in genome-wide association studies. Nat. Genet. 38, 904–909 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  66. 66

    Meyer, M. et al. Nuclear DNA sequences from the Middle Pleistocene Sima de los Huesos hominins. Nature 531, 504–507 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. 67

    Busing, F. M. T. A., Meijer, E. & Van Der Leeden, R. Delete-m jackknife for unequal m. Stat. Comput. 9, 3–8 (1999)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. 68

    Saitou, N. & Nei, M. The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol. Biol. Evol. 4, 406–425 (1987)

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. 69

    Schliep, K. P. phangorn: phylogenetic analysis in R. Bioinformatics 27, 592–593 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70

    The Chimpanzee Sequencing and Analysis Consortium. Initial sequence of the chimpanzee genome and comparison with the human genome. Nature 437, 69–87 (2005)

  71. 71

    Locke, D. P. et al. Comparative and demographic analysis of orang-utan genomes. Nature 469, 529–533 (2011)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. 72

    Gibbs, R. A. et al. Evolutionary and biomedical insights from the rhesus macaque genome. Science 316, 222–234 (2007)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  73. 73

    Moorjani, P. et al. A genetic method for dating ancient genomes provides a direct estimate of human generation interval in the last 45,000 years. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 5652–5657 (2016)

    Article  ADS  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74

    The 1000 Genomes Project Consortium. An integrated map of genetic variation from 1,092 human genomes. Nature 491, 56–65 (2012)

  75. 75

    Paten, B., Herrero, J., Beal, K., Fitzgerald, S. & Birney, E. Enredo and Pecan: genome-wide mammalian consistency-based multiple alignment with paralogs. Genome Res. 18, 1814–1828 (2008)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. 76

    Paten, B. et al. Genome-wide nucleotide-level mammalian ancestor reconstruction. Genome Res. 18, 1829–1843 (2008)

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. 77

    Gravel, S. et al. Demographic history and rare allele sharing among human populations. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 11983–11988 (2011)

    Article  ADS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We thank A. Weihmann and B. Höber for their help with DNA sequencing, U. Stenzel for computational support and advice for data analysis, R. Barr for the help with the graphics, V. Slon for helpful discussions and comments on the manuscript. Q.F. is funded in part by NSFC (91731303, 41672021, 41630102), CAS (QYZDB-SSW-DQC003, XDB13000000, XDA19050102, XDPB05) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (grant number 55008731). D.R. is supported by the US National Science Foundation (grant BCS-1032255) and by an Allen Discovery Center of the Paul Allen Foundation and is an investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. This study was funded by the Max Planck Society and the European Research Council (grant agreement number 694707 to S.P.). M.So. thanks the owner of Les Cottés, and the French Ministry of Culture for financial support and excavation permits.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

M.H., M.M. and S.P. conceived the study. M.Sl., N.P., D.R., K.P., M.M., S.P. and J.Ke. supervised the study. M.H., P.K., S.N. and B.N. performed ancient DNA laboratory work. H.R., I.C., P.Se., M.So., S.T., J.-J.H., I.G., Ž.K., P.R., L.V.G., V.B.D., C.P. and J.Kr. provided and analysed archaeological material. M.H., Q.F., A.H., M.P., F.M., S.G., P.Sk. and V.N. analysed ancient DNA data. M.H., M.M., S.P. and J.Ke. wrote the manuscript with the input of all co-authors.

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Mateja Hajdinjak or Svante Pääbo or Janet Kelso.

Ethics declarations

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Additional information

Reviewer Information Nature thanks C. Lalueza-Fox, C. Stringer and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Extended data figures and tables

Extended Data Figure 1 Frequency of nucleotide substitutions at the beginning and the end of nuclear alignments for the final dataset of Les Cottés Z4-1514, Goyet Q56-1, Mezmaiskaya 2, Vindija 87 and Spy 94a.

Only fragments of at least 35 bp that mapped to the human reference genome with a mapping quality of at least 25 (MQ ≥ 25) were used for this analysis. Solid lines depict all fragments and dashed lines the fragments that have a C-to-T substitution at the opposing end (‘conditional’ C-to-T substitutions). All other types of substitutions are marked in grey.

Extended Data Figure 2 Fragment size distribution of fragments longer than 35 bp mapped to the human reference genome with MQ ≥ 25 for each of the five late Neanderthals.

All fragments are depicted in solid lines and fragments with C-to-T substitutions to the reference genome (putatively deaminated fragments) are depicted with dashed lines.

Extended Data Figure 3 Sex determination based on the number of fragments aligning to the X chromosome and the autosomes.

The expected ratios of X to (X + autosomal) fragments for a female and a male individual are depicted as dashed lines. The results were concordant for all fragments (in red) and for deaminated fragments only (in grey).

Extended Data Figure 4 Principal component analysis of the genomes of Vindija 33.19, Altai, the Denisovan individual, five late Neanderthals and Mezmaiskaya 1.

Genomes of the high-coverage archaics were used to estimate the eigenvectors of the genetic variation and low-coverage Neanderthals were projected onto the plane. Only transversion polymorphisms and bi-allelic sites were considered for the analysis, to a total of 1,010,417 sites as defined by the high-coverage genomes. PC, principal component.

Extended Data Table 1 Amount of data generated for Les Cottés Z4-1514, Goyet Q56-1, Mezmaiskaya 2, Vindija 87 and Spy 94a
Extended Data Table 2 Relationship of the late Neanderthals and Mezmaiskaya 1 to the Altai and Vindija 33.19 Neanderthals calculated as D(Altai, Vindija 33.19, Neanderthal, outgroup) for all fragments and deaminated fragments, restricted to transversions
Extended Data Table 3 The fraction of derived alleles among putatively deaminated fragments that each of the low-coverage individuals shares with the Altai Neanderthal, Vindija 33.19, the Denisovan individual and a present-day human genome
Extended Data Table 4 Time of separation of late Neanderthals and Mezmaiskaya 1 (A) from the ancestor with the high-coverage genomes of Altai and Vindija 33.19 Neanderthals, Denisovan individual and a present-day human (B), when measured in terms of time of split from the B individual (split A–B), or time from present (split-time + branch shortening)

Supplementary information

Life Sciences Reporting Summary (PDF 72 kb)

Supplementary Information

This file contains Supplementary Sections 1-12, Supplementary Tables and Supplementary References – see contents page for details. (PDF 4507 kb)

Supplementary Table 1

An assessment of the catalog of modern-human-specific fixed derived changes in the late Neandertals. (CSV 1793 kb)

PowerPoint slides

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Hajdinjak, M., Fu, Q., Hübner, A. et al. Reconstructing the genetic history of late Neanderthals. Nature 555, 652–656 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature26151

Download citation

Further reading

Comments

By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate.

Search

Quick links

Nature Briefing

Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily.

Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Sign up for Nature Briefing