Extended Data Figure 1 : Electromechanical vortex filament dynamics during cardiac fibrillation.

From: Electromechanical vortex filaments during cardiac fibrillation

Extended Data Figure 1

a, 3D volumetric ultrasound speckle image showing a contracting isolated pig heart during ventricular tachycardia (same heart as shown in Fig. 1a, b, lateral imaging depth 6 cm). Mechanical filament (red) measured within ventricular wall (white region of interest; see also Fig. 1) between left and right ventricle. b, Validation of ultrasound measurement of mechanical filaments on the epicardium using optical mapping (voltage) confirms co-localized electrical and mechanical phase singularities corresponding to two counter-rotating spiral waves (see also Fig. 1a). c, Breakthrough of an U-shaped intramural mechanical filament (red) on the epicardial surface of a pig heart results in the formation of two transmural filaments during ventricular fibrillation and two phase singularities (green circles) with opposite charge (counter rotation spirals) on the surface (see also Fig. 2a). Optical mapping (voltage and strain rate) confirms filament dynamics observed with 4D ultrasound.