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P values indicate significant improvements in the model when each individual parameter was included; they were calculated using LogLik model comparisons after dropping one fixed effect parameter at a time (relative to a model in which only the intercept varied randomly per species). Species random effects show the variance among species in the response to each fixed effect value. P values for random effects were generated from separate model runs shown in Extended Data Table 2. Response variable = log(growth); number of observations = 18,970; number of species = 541. dbh, diameter at breast height.