This review summarizes the case for investing in adolescence as a period of rapid growth, learning, adaptation, and formational neurobiological development. Adolescence is a dynamic maturational period during which young lives can pivot rapidly—in both negative and positive directions. Scientific progress in understanding adolescent development provides actionable insights into windows of opportunity during which policies can have a positive impact on developmental trajectories relating to health, education, and social and economic success. Given current global changes and challenges that affect adolescents, there is a compelling need to leverage these advances in developmental science to inform strategic investments in adolescent health.
This is a preview of subscription content
Subscribe to Nature+
Get immediate online access to the entire Nature family of 50+ journals
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Shonkoff, J. P. & Garner, A. S. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics 129, e232–e246 (2012)
Black, M. M. & Hurley, K. M. Investment in early childhood development. Lancet 384, 1244–1245 (2014)
Shonkoff, J. P., Radner, J. M. & Foote, N. Expanding the evidence base to drive more productive early childhood investment. Lancet 389, 14–16 (2017)
Crone, E. A. & Dahl, R. E. Understanding adolescence as a period of social–affective engagement and goal flexibility. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 13, 636–650 (2012).This review of neuroimaging data presents a model of pubertal changes in social and affective processing, and how these may support the greater flexibility in motivations and priorities needed to navigate the changing social contexts of adolescence.
Schulz, K. M. & Sisk, C. L. The organizing actions of adolescent gonadal steroid hormones on brain and behavioral development. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 70, 148–158 (2016). This study reviews the organizational effects of gonadal hormones on brain and behaviour, and presents a ‘wedge-shaped’ model of decreasing sensitivity to gonadal hormonal effects with age.
Lee, F. S. et al. Adolescent mental health—opportunity and obligation. Science 346, 547–549 (2014)
Sheehan, P . et al. Building the foundations for sustainable development: a case for global investment in the capabilities of adolescents. Lancet 390, 1792–1806 (2017).This study estimates returns for investments in adolescents in low-income, lower-middle income, and upper-middle income countries, and concludes that investments in health and education could generate high economic and social returns.
Patton, G. C. & Viner, R. Pubertal transitions in health. Lancet 369, 1130–1139 (2007)
Nelson, E. E., Jarcho, J. M. & Guyer, A. E. Social re-orientation and brain development: An expanded and updated view. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 17, 118–127 (2016)
Piekarski, D. J. et al. Does puberty mark a transition in sensitive periods for plasticity in the associative neocortex? Brain Res. 1654, 123–144 (2017)
De Lorme, K., Bell, M. R. & Sisk, C. L. The teenage brain: social reorientation and the adolescent brain—the role of gonadal hormones in the male Syrian hamster. Curr. Dir. Psychol. Sci. 22, 128–133 (2013)
van den Bos, W. Neural mechanisms of social reorientation across adolescence. J. Neurosci. 33, 13581–13582 (2013)
Crockett, L. J. & Crouter, A. C. Pathways through Adolescence: Individual Development in Relation to Social Contexts (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994)
Cohen, A. O. et al. When is an adolescent an adult? Assessing cognitive control in emotional and nonemotional contexts. Psychol. Sci. 27, 549–562 (2016)
Patton, G. C. et al. Our future: a Lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet 387, 2423–2478 (2016).This comprehensive report describes how unprecedented global forces are shaping the health and wellbeing of the largest generation of adolescents in human history.
Cohen, A. O., Bonnie, R. J., Taylor-Thompson, K. & Casey, B.J. When does a juvenile become an adult: implications for law and policy. Temp. Law Rev. 88, 769–788 (2015)
Davey, C. G., Yücel, M. & Allen, N. B. The emergence of depression in adolescence: development of the prefrontal cortex and the representation of reward. Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 32, 1–19 (2008)
Blakemore, S.-J. & Mills, K. L. Is adolescence a sensitive period for sociocultural processing? Annu. Rev. Psychol. 65, 187–207 (2014).This study describes how brain regions involved in social processing and behaviour undergo both structural changes and functional reorganization during the second decade of life, possibly reflecting a sensitive period for adapting to one’s social environment.
Blakemore, S. J. & Choudhury, S. Development of the adolescent brain: implications for executive function and social cognition. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry 47, 296–312 (2006)
Dumontheil, I. Development of abstract thinking during childhood and adolescence: the role of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 10, 57–76 (2014)
de Water, E., Cillessen, A. H. & Scheres, A. Distinct age-related differences in temporal discounting and risk taking in adolescents and young adults. Child Dev. 85, 1881–1897 (2014)
Gestsdottir, S., Bowers, E., von Eye, A., Napolitano, C. M. & Lerner, R. M. Intentional self regulation in middle adolescence: the emerging role of loss-based selection in positive youth development. J. Youth Adolesc. 39, 764–782 (2010)
Schwartz, S. J. & Petrova, M. Fostering healthy identity development in adolescence. Nat. Hum. Behav. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-017-0283-2 (2018)
Suleiman, A. B ., Galván, A ., Harden, K. P. & Dahl, R. E. Becoming a sexual being: the ‘elephant in the room’of adolescent brain development. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 25, 209–220 (2017).This review explores the role of puberty in the social, emotional and cognitive maturation processes necessary for reproductive success, and the role of sex and romance as important developmental dimensions of health and well-being in adolescence.
Dahl, R. E. Adolescent brain development: a period of vulnerabilities and opportunities. Keynote address. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1021, 1–22 (2004)
United Nations. World Population Prospects, the 2012 Revision. https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/ (UNDESA, 2013)
Bell, V., Bishop, D. V. & Przybylski, A. K. The debate over digital technology and young people. Br. Med. J. 351, h3064 (2015)
Madden, M., Lenhart, A., Duggan, M., Cortesi, S. & Gasser, U. Teens and Technology 2013http://www.pewinternet.org/2013/03/13/teens-and-technology-2013/ (2016)
Spies Shapiro, L. A. & Margolin, G. Growing up wired: social networking sites and adolescent psychosocial development. Clin. Child Fam. Psychol. Rev. 17, 1–18 (2014)
Smetana, J. G., Metzger, A., Gettman, D. C. & Campione-Barr, N. Disclosure and secrecy in adolescent–parent relationships. Child Dev. 77, 201–217 (2006)
Notten, N., Peter, J., Kraaykamp, G. & Valkenburg, P. M. Research note: digital divide across borders—a cross-national study of adolescents’ use of digital technologies. Eur. Sociol. Rev. 25, 551–560 (2009)
Worthman, C. M. & Trang, K. Dynamics of body time, social time and life history at adolescence. Nature https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25750 (2018)
Palan, K. M., Gentina, E. & Muratore, I. Adolescent consumption autonomy: a cross-cultural examination. J. Bus. Res. 63, 1342–1348 (2010)
Stuckler, D., McKee, M., Ebrahim, S. & Basu, S. Manufacturing epidemics: the role of global producers in increased consumption of unhealthy commodities including processed foods, alcohol, and tobacco. PLoS Med. 9, e1001235 (2012)
McCarthy, K. B. M. & Hall, K. Investing when it Counts: Reviewing the Evidence and Charting a Course of Research and Action for Very Young Adolescents (Population Council, 2016). This report reviews the literature and presents a compelling case that investing in very young adolescents (ages 10–14) is important, as this is a pivotal time in the life course.
World Health Organization. Global Accelerated Action for the Health of Adolescents (AA-HA!): guidance to support country implementation. http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/topics/adolescence/framework-accelerated-action/en/ (WHO, 2017)
Akresh, R., Bhalotra, S., Leone, M. & Osili, U. O. War and stature: growing up during the Nigerian Civil War. Am. Econ. Rev. 102, 273–277 (2012)
Holmqvist, G. & Pereira. A. Famines and stunting: Are adolescents the hardest hit? https://blogs.unicef.org/evidence-for-action/famines-and-stunting-are-adolescents-the-hardest-hit/ (Unicef, 2017)
Falconi, A., Gemmill, A., Dahl, R. E. & Catalano, R. Adolescent experience predicts longevity: evidence from historical epidemiology. J. Dev. Orig. Health Dis. 5, 171–177 (2014)
Bonjour, J. P., Theintz, G., Buchs, B., Slosman, D. & Rizzoli, R. Critical years and stages of puberty for spinal and femoral bone mass accumulation during adolescence. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 73, 555–563 (1991)
Mericq, V. et al. Long-term metabolic risk among children born premature or small for gestational age. Nat. Rev. Endocrinol. 13, 50–62 (2017)
Drzewiecki, C. M., Willing, J. & Juraska, J. M. Synaptic number changes in the medial prefrontal cortex across adolescence in male and female rats: a role for pubertal onset. Synapse 70, 361–368 (2016)
Petanjek, Z. et al. Extraordinary neoteny of synaptic spines in the human prefrontal cortex. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 13281–13286 (2011)
Rakic, P., Bourgeois, J. P. & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. Synaptic development of the cerebral cortex: implications for learning, memory, and mental illness. Prog. Brain Res. 102, 227–243 (1994)
Benes, F. M., Vincent, S. L., Molloy, R. & Khan, Y. Increased interaction of dopamine-immunoreactive varicosities with GABA neurons of rat medial prefrontal cortex occurs during the postweanling period. Synapse 23, 237–245 (1996)
Cunningham, M. G., Bhattacharyya, S. & Benes, F. M. Amygdalo-cortical sprouting continues into early adulthood: implications for the development of normal and abnormal function during adolescence. J. Comp. Neurol. 453, 116–130 (2002)
Johnson, C. M. et al. Long-range orbitofrontal and amygdala axons show divergent patterns of maturation in the frontal cortex across adolescence. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 18, 113–120 (2016)
Arruda-Carvalho, M., Wu, W. C., Cummings, K. A. & Clem, R. L. Optogenetic examination of prefrontal–amygdala synaptic development. J. Neurosci. 37, 2976–2985 (2017)
Larsen, B., Verstynen, T. D., Yeh, F. C. & Luna, B. Developmental changes in the integration of affective and cognitive corticostriatal pathways are associated with reward-driven behavior. Cereb. Cortex https://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhx162 (2017)
Hensch, T. K. Critical period plasticity in local cortical circuits. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 6, 877–888 (2005)
Piekarski, D. J ., Boivin, J. R. & Wilbrecht, L. Ovarian hormones organize the maturation of inhibitory neurotransmission in the frontal cortex at puberty onset in female mice. Curr. Biol. 27, 1735–1745 (2017).This study provides evidence for organizational effects of ovarian hormones on the maturation of inhibitory neurotransmission in the cingulate cortex in mice, and provides experimental evidence for puberty-linked changes in learning.
Tamnes, C. K. et al. Development of the cerebral cortex across adolescence: a multisample study of inter-related longitudinal changes in cortical volume, surface area, and thickness. J. Neurosci. 37, 3402–3412 (2017)
Zuo, Y., Lin, A., Chang, P. & Gan, W. B. Development of long-term dendritic spine stability in diverse regions of cerebral cortex. Neuron 46, 181–189 (2005)
Baum, G. L. et al. Modular segregation of structural brain networks supports the development of executive function in youth. Curr. Biol. 27, 1561–1572 (2017)
Paus, T. Growth of white matter in the adolescent brain: myelin or axon? Brain Cogn. 72, 26–35 (2010)
Gogolla, N., Caroni, P., Lüthi, A. & Herry, C. Perineuronal nets protect fear memories from erasure. Science 325, 1258–1261 (2009)
Balmer, T. S., Carels, V. M., Frisch, J. L. & Nick, T. A. Modulation of perineuronal nets and parvalbumin with developmental song learning. J. Neurosci. 29, 12878–12885 (2009)
Lee, H. H. C. et al. Genetic Otx2 mis-localization delays critical period plasticity across brain regions. Mol. Psychiatry 22, 680–688 (2017)
Guskjolen, A., Josselyn, S. A. & Frankland, P. W. Age-dependent changes in spatial memory retention and flexibility in mice. Neurobiol. Learn. Mem. 143, 59–66 (2017)
Davidow, J. Y., Foerde, K., Galván, A. & Shohamy, D. An Upside to reward sensitivity: the hippocampus supports enhanced reinforcement learning in adolescence. Neuron 92, 93–99 (2016)
Johnson, C. & Wilbrecht, L. Juvenile mice show greater flexibility in multiple choice reversal learning than adults. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 1, 540–551 (2011)
van den Bos, W., Cohen, M. X., Kahnt, T. & Crone, E. A. Striatum–medial prefrontal cortex connectivity predicts developmental changes in reinforcement learning. Cereb. Cortex 22, 1247–1255 (2012)
van der Schaaf, M. E., Warmerdam, E., Crone, E. A. & Cools, R. Distinct linear and non-linear trajectories of reward and punishment reversal learning during development: relevance for dopamine’s role in adolescent decision making. Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 1, 578–590 (2011)
Gopnik, A. et al. Changes in cognitive flexibility and hypothesis search across human life history from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 114, 7892–7899 (2017)
Lucas, C. G., Bridgers, S., Griffiths, T. L. & Gopnik, A. When children are better (or at least more open-minded) learners than adults: developmental differences in learning the forms of causal relationships. Cognition 131, 284–299 (2014)
Walker, C. M., Bridgers, S. & Gopnik, A. The early emergence and puzzling decline of relational reasoning: effects of knowledge and search on inferring abstract concepts. Cognition 156, 30–40 (2016)
Braams, B. R., van Duijvenvoorde, A. C., Peper, J. S. & Crone, E. A. Longitudinal changes in adolescent risk-taking: a comprehensive study of neural responses to rewards, pubertal development, and risk-taking behavior. J. Neurosci. 35, 7226–7238 (2015)
Hauser, T. U., Iannaccone, R., Walitza, S., Brandeis, D. & Brem, S. Cognitive flexibility in adolescence: neural and behavioral mechanisms of reward prediction error processing in adaptive decision making during development. Neuroimage 104, 347–354 (2015)
Walker, D. M . et al. Adolescence and reward: making sense of neural and behavioral changes amid the chaos. J. Neurosci. 37, 10855–10866 (2017).This study describes the role pubertal hormones have in the development of adolescent social and reward-related behaviours with a focus on sex differences, the medial prefrontal cortex, mesocorticolimbic dopamine and amygdala in rodents
Pfeifer, J. H. et al. Longitudinal change in the neural bases of adolescent social self-evaluations: effects of age and pubertal development. J. Neurosci. 33, 7415–7419 (2013)
Nelson, E. E., Leibenluft, E., McClure, E. B. & Pine, D. S. The social re-orientation of adolescence: a neuroscience perspective on the process and its relation to psychopathology. Psychol. Med. 35, 163–174 (2005)
Goddings, A. L., Burnett Heyes, S., Bird, G., Viner, R. M. & Blakemore, S. J. The relationship between puberty and social emotion processing. Dev. Sci. 15, 801–811 (2012)
Somerville, L. H. et al. The medial prefrontal cortex and the emergence of self-conscious emotion in adolescence. Psychol. Sci. 24, 1554–1562 (2013)
Stroud, L. R. et al. Stress response and the adolescent transition: performance versus peer rejection stressors. Dev. Psychopathol. 21, 47–68 (2009)
Rosen, M. L. et al. Salience network response to changes in emotional expressions of others is heightened during early adolescence: relevance for social functioning. Dev. Sci. https://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12571 (2017)
Herting, M. M. & Sowell, E. R. Puberty and structural brain development in humans. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 44, 122–137 (2017)
Juraska, J. M. & Willing, J. Pubertal onset as a critical transition for neural development and cognition. Brain Res. 1654, 87–94 (2017)
Sisk, C. L. Hormone-dependent adolescent organization of socio-sexual behaviors in mammals. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 38, 63–68 (2016)
Doupe, A. J. & Kuhl, P. K. Birdsong and human speech: common themes and mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22, 567–631 (1999)
Fawcett, T. W. & Frankenhuis, W. E. Adaptive explanations for sensitive windows in development. Front. Zool. 12, S3 (2015)
Insel, T. R. & Fernald, R. D. How the brain processes social information: searching for the social brain. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 27, 697–722 (2004)
Werker, J. F. & Hensch, T. K. Critical periods in speech perception: new directions. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 66, 173–196 (2015)
Alvarez-Buylla, A. & Kirn, J. R. Birth, migration, incorporation, and death of vocal control neurons in adult songbirds. J. Neurobiol. 33, 585–601 (1997)
Kirn, J., O’Loughlin, B., Kasparian, S. & Nottebohm, F. Cell death and neuronal recruitment in the high vocal center of adult male canaries are temporally related to changes in song. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 91, 7844–7848 (1994)
Templeton, C. N. et al. Immediate and long-term effects of testosterone on song plasticity and learning in juvenile song sparrows. Behav. Processes 90, 254–260 (2012)
Bottjer, S. W. & Johnson, F. Circuits, hormones, and learning: vocal behavior in songbirds. J. Neurobiol. 33, 602–618 (1997)
Marler, P., Peters, S., Ball, G. F., Dufty, A. M. Jr & Wingfield, J. C. The role of sex steroids in the acquisition and production of birdsong. Nature 336, 770–772 (1988)
Marler, P., Peters, S. & Wingfield, J. Correlations between song acquisition, song production, and plasma levels of testosterone and estradiol in sparrows. J. Neurobiol. 18, 531–548 (1987)
Remage-Healey, L., Dong, S. M., Chao, A. & Schlinger, B. A. Sex-specific, rapid neuroestrogen fluctuations and neurophysiological actions in the songbird auditory forebrain. J. Neurophysiol. 107, 1621–1631 (2012)
Matragrano, L. L., LeBlanc, M. M., Chitrapu, A., Blanton, Z. E. & Maney, D. L. Testosterone alters genomic responses to song and monoaminergic innervation of auditory areas in a seasonally breeding songbird. Dev. Neurobiol. 73, 455–468 (2013)
Matragrano, L. L. et al. Estradiol-dependent modulation of serotonergic markers in auditory areas of a seasonally breeding songbird. Behav. Neurosci. 126, 110–122 (2012)
Cho, K. K. et al. Gamma rhythms link prefrontal interneuron dysfunction with cognitive inflexibility in Dlx5/6+/− mice. Neuron 85, 1332–1343 (2015)
De Lorme, K. C. & Sisk, C. L. The organizational effects of pubertal testosterone on sexual proficiency in adult male Syrian hamsters. Physiol. Behav. 165, 273–277 (2016)
Cardoos, S. L. et al. Social status strategy in early adolescent girls: testosterone and value-based decision making. Psychoneuroendocrinology 81, 14–21 (2017)
Spielberg, J. M., Olino, T. M., Forbes, E. E. & Dahl, R. E. Exciting fear in adolescence: does pubertal development alter threat processing? Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. 8, 86–95 (2014)
Tyborowska, A., Volman, I., Smeekens, S., Toni, I. & Roelofs, K. Testosterone during puberty shifts emotional control from pulvinar to anterior prefrontal cortex. J. Neurosci. 36, 6156–6164 (2016)
Bos, P. A., Panksepp, J., Bluthé, R. M. & van Honk, J. Acute effects of steroid hormones and neuropeptides on human social-emotional behavior: a review of single administration studies. Front. Neuroendocrinol. 33, 17–35 (2012)
Dreher, J. C. et al. Testosterone causes both prosocial and antisocial status-enhancing behaviors in human males. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 11633–11638 (2016)
Cheng, J. T., Tracy, J. L., Foulsham, T., Kingstone, A. & Henrich, J. Two ways to the top: evidence that dominance and prestige are distinct yet viable avenues to social rank and influence. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 104, 103–125 (2013)
Chandra-Mouli, V. et al. Implications of the global early adolescent study’s formative research findings for action and for research. J. Adolesc. Health 61, S5–S9 (2017)
Allen, N. B ., Latham, M. D ., Barrett, A ., Sheeber, L. & Davis, B. in Comprehensive Women’s Mental Health (eds Castle, D . & Abel, J .) 65–80 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 2016)
Avenevoli, S., Swendsen, J., He, J.-P., Burstein, M. & Merikangas, K. R. Major depression in the national comorbidity survey–adolescent supplement: prevalence, correlates, and treatment. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 54, 37–44 (2015)
Maggs, J. L., Almeida, D. M. & Galambos, N. L. Risky business: the paradoxical meaning of problem behavior for young adolescents. J. Early Adolesc. 15, 344–362 (1995)
Silbereisen, R. K. & Reitzle, M. in Self-Regulatory Behaviour and Risk Taking: Causes and Consequences (eds Lipsitt, L. P . & Mitnick, L. L. ) 199–217 (Ablex, 1991)
Catalano, R. F., Hawkins, J. D., Berglund, M. L., Pollard, J. A. & Arthur, M. W. Prevention science and positive youth development: competitive or cooperative frameworks? J. Adolesc. Health 31, 230–239 (2002)
Yeager, D. S ., Dahl, R. E. & Dweck, C. S. Why interventions to influence adolescent behavior often fail but could succeed. Perspect. Psychol. Sci. 13, 101–122 (2018).This study provides a developmental perspective as to why traditional preventative school-based interventions work less well for adolescents, and reviews examples of promising approaches that take into account adolescents’ enhanced desire to feel respected and be accorded status.
Costello, E. J . & Angold, A. in Developmental Psychopathology 3rd edn (ed. Cicchetti, D. ) 1–35 (John Wiley & Sons, 2016)
Suleiman, A. B. & Dahl, R. E. Leveraging neuroscience to inform adolescent health: The need for an innovative transdisciplinary developmental science of adolescence. J. Adolesc. Health 60, 240–248 (2017)
Collins, F. S. & Varmus, H. A new initiative on precision medicine. N. Engl. J. Med. 372, 793–795 (2015)
Khoury, M. J., Iademarco, M. F. & Riley, W. T. Precision public health for the era of precision medicine. Am. J. Prev. Med. 50, 398–401 (2016)
Knoll, L. J. et al. A window of opportunity for cognitive training in adolescence. Psychol. Sci. 27, 1620–1631 (2016)
Knoll, L. J., Leung, J. T., Foulkes, L. & Blakemore, S. J. Age-related differences in social influence on risk perception depend on the direction of influence. J. Adolesc. 60, 53–63 (2017)
Minges, K. E. & Redeker, N. S. Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence. Sleep Med. Rev. 28, 86–95 (2016)
Freeman, D. et al. The effects of improving sleep on mental health (OASIS): a randomised controlled trial with mediation analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 4, 749–758 (2017)
Okonofua, J. A., Paunesku, D. & Walton, G. M. Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 113, 5221–5226 (2016)
Anderson, S. A., Classey, J. D., Condé, F., Lund, J. S. & Lewis, D. A. Synchronous development of pyramidal neuron dendritic spines and parvalbumin-immunoreactive chandelier neuron axon terminals in layer III of monkey prefrontal cortex. Neuroscience 67, 7–22 (1995)
Gabard-Durnam, L. J. et al. The development of human amygdala functional connectivity at rest from 4 to 23 years: a cross-sectional study. Neuroimage 95, 193–207 (2014)
Willing, J., Cortes, L. R., Brodsky, J. M., Kim, T. & Juraska, J. M. Innervation of the medial prefrontal cortex by tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive fibers during adolescence in male and female rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 59, 583–589 (2017)
Morris, A. S., Criss, M. M., Silk, J. S. & Houltberg, B. J. The impact of parenting on emotion regulation during childhood and adolescence. Child Dev. Perspect. 11, 233–238 (2017)
Schwartz, O. S., Sheeber, L. B., Dudgeon, P. & Allen, N. B. Emotion socialization within the family environment and adolescent depression. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 32, 447–453 (2012)
Whittle, S. et al. Prefrontal and amygdala volumes are related to adolescents’ affective behaviors during parent–adolescent interactions. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 3652–3657 (2008)
Whittle, S. et al. Observed measures of negative parenting predict brain development during adolescence. PLoS ONE 11, e0147774 (2016)
Callaghan, B. L. et al. Amygdala resting connectivity mediates association between maternal aggression and adolescent major depression: a 7-year longitudinal study. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 56, 983–991 (2017)
Whittle, S. et al. Role of positive parenting in the association between neighborhood social disadvantage and brain development across adolescence. JAMA Psychiatry 74, 824–832 (2017)
Yap, M. B. et al. Parents in prevention: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of parenting interventions to prevent internalizing problems in children from birth to age 18. Clin. Psychol. Rev. 50, 138–158 (2016)
Richards, B. A. et al. Patterns across multiple memories are identified over time. Nat. Neurosci. 17, 981–986 (2014)
Tompary, A. & Davachi, L. Consolidation Promotes the emergence of representational overlap in the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. Neuron 96, 228–241 (2017)
We thank the leadership team of the Center on the Developing Adolescent, including A. Galvan, A. Fuligni and J. Pfeifer, who have provided important intellectual contributions through many formative discussions over the past two years—in ways that were instrumental to an integrative understanding of the developmental science of adolescence as expressed in this paper.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Reviewer Information Nature thanks B. J. Casey and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Dahl, R., Allen, N., Wilbrecht, L. et al. Importance of investing in adolescence from a developmental science perspective. Nature 554, 441–450 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature25770
Evaluating the mechanisms and long-term effects of a web-based comprehensive sexual health and media literacy education program for young adults attending community college: study protocol for a three-arm randomized controlled trial
Digital use of standardised assessment tools for children and adolescents: can available paper-based questionnaires be used free of charge in electronic format?
BMC Psychiatry (2022)
npj Science of Learning (2022)
The Well-Being of Adolescents Conceived Through Medically Assisted Reproduction: A Population-Level and Within-Family Analysis
European Journal of Population (2022)
Current Psychology (2022)