Successive clear-sky images (10:48:39 to10:48:57 ut) from a ground station (the Pas). Distinct pulsating patches in the field of view of the Pas are indicated by yellow arrows. The filled and open arrows correspond to pulsations that are ‘on’ (bright aurora) or ‘off’ (no aurora), respectively. The red crosses show the nominal spacecraft footprint. The dotted lines illustrate magnetic coordinates every 5° in latitude and 15° in longitude, respectively. Supplementary Video 1 shows the full motion of the pulsating auroral patches in a 3-s cadence. MLAT, magnetic latitude.