Letter | Published:

Isomer depletion as experimental evidence of nuclear excitation by electron capture

Nature volume 554, pages 216218 (08 February 2018) | Download Citation


The atomic nucleus and its electrons are often thought of as independent systems that are held together in the atom by their mutual attraction. Their interaction, however, leads to other important effects, such as providing an additional decay mode for excited nuclear states, whereby the nucleus releases energy by ejecting an atomic electron instead of by emitting a γ-ray. This ‘internal conversion’ has been known for about a hundred years and can be used to study nuclei and their interaction with their electrons1,2,3. In the inverse process—nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC)—a free electron is captured into an atomic vacancy and can excite the nucleus to a higher-energy state, provided that the kinetic energy of the free electron plus the magnitude of its binding energy once captured matches the nuclear energy difference between the two states. NEEC was predicted4 in 1976 and has not hitherto been observed5,6. Here we report evidence of NEEC in molybdenum-93 and determine the probability and cross-section for the process in a beam-based experimental scenario. Our results provide a standard for the assessment of theoretical models relevant to NEEC, which predict cross-sections that span many orders of magnitude. The greatest practical effect of the NEEC process may be on the survival of nuclei in stellar environments7, in which it could excite isomers (that is, long-lived nuclear states) to shorter-lived states. Such excitations may reduce the abundance of the isotope after its production. This is an example of ‘isomer depletion’, which has been investigated previously through other reactions8,9,10,11,12, but is used here to obtain evidence for NEEC.

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C.J.C. and J.J.C. thank A. D. Ayangeakaa for input on the potential contributions of Coulomb excitations to the background and M. S. Litz and N. R. Pereira for discussions. We also thank J. Rohrer for assistance in setting up the Gammasphere experiment and the ATLAS operations staff for their efforts. This work was initiated under the US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Director’s Research Initiative, award number DRI-FY14-SE-022. Further support was provided by ARL Cooperative Agreements W911NF-12-2-0019 and W911NF-16-2-0034, the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under contract number DE-AC02-06CH11357, the National Science Foundation under grant number PHY-1203100, the Australian Research Council under grant number FT100100991, and the Polish National Science Centre under grants 2011/01/D/ST2/01286 and 2017/25/B/ST2/00901. M.P., J.R. and A.B.H. received support through Ecopulse, Inc. under ARL contract number W911QX09D0016-0004. This research used resources of Argonne National Laboratory’s ATLAS facility, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and of the HIAF at ANU.

Author information

Author notes

    • R. V. F. Janssens
    • , J. C. Marsh
    •  & S. Bottoni

    Present addresses: Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599-3255, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708-2308, USA (R.V.F.J.); Frontier Technology, Inc., Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command, Systems Center Pacific, 49599 Lassing Road, San Diego, California 92152, USA (J.C.M.); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano and INFN sez. Milano, I-20133, Milano, Italy (S.B.).

    • S. A. Karamian



  1. Oak Ridge Associated Universities Fellowship Program, US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783, USA

    • C. J. Chiara
    •  & J. C. Marsh
  2. US Army Research Laboratory, Adelphi, Maryland 20783, USA

    • J. J. Carroll
  3. Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, USA

    • M. P. Carpenter
    • , J. P. Greene
    • , R. V. F. Janssens
    • , D. Seweryniak
    • , S. Zhu
    •  & S. Bottoni
  4. Department of Physics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402, USA

    • D. J. Hartley
  5. Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory 0200, Australia

    • G. J. Lane
  6. Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Fort Belvoir, Virginia 22060, USA

    • D. A. Matters
  7. Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń, 87-100 Toruń, Poland

    • M. Polasik
  8. National Centre for Nuclear Research, 05-400 Otwock, Poland

    • J. Rzadkiewicz
  9. Institute of Optics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627, USA

  10. Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980, Russia

    • A. B. Hayes
    •  & S. A. Karamian


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C.J.C. led the experimental effort. The experiment was conceptualized by S.A.K. and J.J.C., with the final design provided by C.J.C. and J.J.C. with input from D.J.H. and G.J.L. The targets were prepared by J.P.G. All authors, except S.B., A.B.H. and S.A.K., participated in the experiment. C.J.C. analysed the data, with substantial input from J.J.C. Guidance on the atomic conditions for NEEC was provided by M.P. and J.R. The calculations of inelastic-scattering cross-sections with FRESCO were performed by S.B. and those of Coulomb excitation with GOSIA by A.B.H. We wish to call attention to the role of our late colleague S.A.K., who provided the initial impetus for this work but sadly did not see these results.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. J. Chiara.

Reviewer Information Nature thanks O. Kocharovskaya and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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