Figure 2 : Luminosity versus rise rate for objects with early optical detections.

From: A surge of light at the birth of a supernova

Figure 2

The rate of change of magnitude per unit time, dm/dt, is shown on the upper x axis. V-band data are used, except as indicated in parentheses next to the name of the object. SN 2016gkg is shown with filled red circles following its light-curve evolution, and an upper limit (red arrow) from the pre-discovery detection limit. The point labelled ‘discovery’ represents the initial rise. ‘PS1 rapid’ indicates rapidly evolving transients from Pan-STARRS127. Each point is one of the following objects (in parentheses we give the observed band that best matches the V band, according to the redshift of each object): PS1-10ah (rP1), PS1-10bjp (rP1), PS1-11qr (iP1), PS1-11bbq (zP1), PS1-12bv (iP1), PS1-12brf (iP1) and PS1-13duy (iP1). Other supernovae are as follows: the broad-lined type Ic, GRB-associated supernova SN 2006aj (dark-grey circles28 and light-grey circle11, but see a discussion about the light-grey data point in Methods); the X-ray flash associated with the type Ib supernova SN 2008D 12; the type II supernova SN 2013fs (iPTF13dqy)15; the type IIb supernova SN 2013cu (iPTF13ast)13; and the type II supernovae from the Kepler mission, KSN 2011a and KSN 2011d14. Error bars are 1σ.