Figure 4 : Evolution and spread of insecticide resistance in the Vgsc gene.

From: Genetic diversity of the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

Figure 4

Top, a dendrogram obtained by hierarchical clustering of haplotypes from wild-caught individuals. The colour bar below shows the population of origin for each haplotype. Bottom, alleles carried by each haplotype at 17 non-synonymous SNPs with alternative allele frequency > 1% (white denotes reference allele; black denotes alternative allele; red denotes previously known resistance allele). At the lower margin, we label 10 haplotype clusters carrying a kdr allele (either Leu995Phe or Leu995Ser). The inset map depicts haplotypes that are shared between populations, demonstrating the spread of insecticide resistance.