Data presented are from the third day of imaging. a, Histogram of time-averaged ΔF(t)/F0 values observed in the 30 s following stimulus introduction (or the first 30 s of imaging, on baseline trials). Dashed lines indicate thresholds for identifying excited (≥2 s.d. (2σ) of baseline above the mean pre-intruder baseline) and inhibited (≤−2σ below pre-intruder baseline) cells. (n = 5 imaged mice, 5 male trials, 5 female trials, 2 toy trials, 2 baseline trials per mouse.) b, c, Average percentage of time cells were excited (b) or inhibited (c) in first 30 s of imaging. d, Example traces from single Esr1+ cells, showing example response profiles during a single trial interaction with a female conspecific. While some cells showed transient calcium responses (N1, N2), others showed slower dynamics (N3–N5), including persistent elevation or suppression of activity for the duration of the encounter with the female. We believe the latter responses reflect the ongoing activity of some VMHvl cells, as filtered by the slow dynamics of GCaMP6s. e, Autocorrelation functions computed across all day 3 trials, for each example cell in d; red line indicates half-width. f, Autocorrelation half-width computed across all day 3 trials, for all cells from all mice (n = 1,435 cells in five mice), sorted from smallest to largest, revealing a continuous range of values. Autocorrelation half-width of the five cells in d are indicated. g, Example spatial maps of excited (left; mean ΔF(t)/F0 ≥ 2σ during periods of social interaction) and inhibited (right; mean ΔF(t)/F0 ≤ −2σ during interaction across all male and female trials on the third day of imaging) cells in the presence of male and female conspecifics. h, The percentage of cells across all mice (n = 5) that were excited and/or inhibited by both males and females, compared to the percentage expected by chance assuming statistical independence. (both inhibited, P = 2.17 × 10−4; excited by female + inhibited by male, P = 0.0299).