Figure 1 : The 4D Nucleome project.

From: The 4D nucleome project

Figure 1

The project encompasses three components. a, Experimental mapping approaches are used to measure a range of aspects of the spatial organization of the genome, including chromatin loops, domains, nuclear bodies and so on. b, Computational and modelling approaches are used to interpret experimental observations and build (dynamic) spatial models of the nucleus. c, Perturbation experiments, for example, using CRISPR–Cas9-mediated genome engineering, are used for functional validation. In these studies chromatin structures are altered, for example, by removing chromatin loops, creating novel loops at defined positions or tethering regulatory components in selected regions to test their architectural function. These perturbation studies can be complemented with functional studies, for example, analysis of gene expression to assess the functional implications of chromatin folding. The nucleus image (a) shows live cell CRISPR labelling of specific loci on human chromosomes 1 and 13 and is provided by H. Ma and T. Pederson.