Letter | Published:

Real-space imaging of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order with a single-spin magnetometer

Nature volume 549, pages 252256 (14 September 2017) | Download Citation

Abstract

Although ferromagnets have many applications, their large magnetization and the resulting energy cost for switching magnetic moments bring into question their suitability for reliable low-power spintronic devices. Non-collinear antiferromagnetic systems do not suffer from this problem, and often have extra functionalities: non-collinear spin order1 may break space-inversion symmetry2,3 and thus allow electric-field control of magnetism4,5, or may produce emergent spin–orbit effects6 that enable efficient spin–charge interconversion7. To harness these traits for next-generation spintronics, the nanoscale control and imaging capabilities that are now routine for ferromagnets must be developed for antiferromagnetic systems. Here, using a non-invasive, scanning single-spin magnetometer based on a nitrogen–vacancy defect in diamond8,9,10, we demonstrate real-space visualization of non-collinear antiferromagnetic order in a magnetic thin film at room temperature. We image the spin cycloid of a multiferroic bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) thin film and extract a period of about 70 nanometres, consistent with values determined by macroscopic diffraction11,12. In addition, we take advantage of the magnetoelectric coupling present in BiFeO3 to manipulate the cycloid propagation direction by an electric field. Besides highlighting the potential of nitrogen–vacancy magnetometry for imaging complex antiferromagnetic orders at the nanoscale, these results demonstrate how BiFeO3 can be used in the design of reconfigurable nanoscale spin textures.

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Acknowledgements

We thank J. P. Tetienne and T. Hingant for experimental assistance in the early stages of the project. We are grateful to J. M. D. Coey for discussions. This research was supported by the European Research Council (ERC-StG-2014, IMAGINE), the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007-2013) under the project DIADEMS, and by the French Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) through project FERROMON and PIAF. This work is supported by a public grant overseen by the French National Research Agency (ANR) as part of the ‘Investissements d’Avenir’ program (Labex NanoSaclay, reference: ANR-10-LABX-0035).

Author information

Author notes

    • I. Gross
    •  & W. Akhtar

    These authors contributed equally to this work.

Affiliations

  1. Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Université de Montpellier and CNRS, 34095 Montpellier, France

    • I. Gross
    • , W. Akhtar
    • , L. J. Martínez
    • , S. Chouaieb
    •  & V. Jacques
  2. Laboratoire Aimé Cotton, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, ENS Cachan, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France

    • I. Gross
  3. Unité Mixte de Physique, CNRS, Thales, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau, France

    • V. Garcia
    • , K. Garcia
    • , C. Carrétéro
    • , A. Barthélémy
    • , M. Bibes
    •  & S. Fusil
  4. Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, Basel CH-4056, Switzerland

    • P. Appel
    •  & P. Maletinsky
  5. Centre de Nanosciences et de Nanotechnologies, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay, France

    • J.-V. Kim
  6. SPEC, CEA, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    • J. Y. Chauleau
    •  & M. Viret
  7. Synchrotron SOLEIL, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    • J. Y. Chauleau
    •  & N. Jaouen
  8. Université d’Evry, Université Paris-Saclay, 91025 Evry, France

    • S. Fusil

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Contributions

I.G., W.A., L.J.M. and S.C. performed the NV magnetometry experiments; I.G., W.A., L.J.M. and V.J. analysed the data and performed magnetic modelling with assistance from M.V.; K.G. and C.C. fabricated the BFO sample; V.G. and S.F. performed the structural analysis and the piezoresponse force microscopy experiments; P.A. and P.M. engineered diamond tips hosting single NV defects; I.G., W.A., V.G., S.F., M.B. and V.J. wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to the interpretation of the data and commented on the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to V. Jacques.

Reviewer Information Nature thanks J. Mundy and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

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DOI

https://doi.org/10.1038/nature23656

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