International agreements mandate the expansion of Earth's protected-area network as a bulwark against the continued extinction of wild populations, species, and ecosystems. Yet many protected areas are underfunded, poorly managed, and ecologically damaged; the conundrum is how to increase their coverage and effectiveness simultaneously. Innovative restoration and rewilding programmes in Costa Rica's Área de Conservación Guanacaste and Mozambique's Parque Nacional da Gorongosa highlight how degraded ecosystems can be rehabilitated, expanded, and woven into the cultural fabric of human societies. Worldwide, enormous potential for biodiversity conservation can be realized by upgrading existing nature reserves while harmonizing them with the needs and aspirations of their constituencies.
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Figs 1 and 2 were based on designs created by Terra Communications. D. Janzen, W. Hallwachs, W. Sandoval, M. Mutimucuio, D. Muala, M. Stalmans, G. Carr, J. Daskin, M. Jordan, P. Naskrecki, P. Bouley and C. Tarnita supplied information, graphics, or comments that were crucial to the preparation of this article. I thank the following organizations for support: the US National Science Foundation (DEB-1355122, DEB-1457697), the Princeton Environmental Institute, Princeton's Innovation Fund for New Ideas in the Natural Sciences, and the Gorongosa Project.
The author's primary institution (Princeton University) has received research funding from the Gorongosa Project, a US-registered charitable non-profit organization that is discussed in this Perspective, to support the author's work on the ecology and conservation of Gorongosa National Park, Mozambique. The author serves on the boards of directors of both the Gorongosa Project and the Guanacaste Dry Forest Conservation Fund (another US-registered non-profit organization discussed in this Perspective) but is not financially compensated for his service in either of these capacities.
Reviewer Information Nature thanks L. Joppa and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
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Pringle, R. Upgrading protected areas to conserve wild biodiversity. Nature 546, 91–99 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature22902
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