Letter | Published:

Widespread movement of meltwater onto and across Antarctic ice shelves

Nature volume 544, pages 349352 (20 April 2017) | Download Citation

  • A Corrigendum to this article was published on 08 November 2017

This article has been updated


Surface meltwater drains across ice sheets, forming melt ponds that can trigger ice-shelf collapse1,2, acceleration of grounded ice flow and increased sea-level rise3,4,5. Numerical models of the Antarctic Ice Sheet that incorporate meltwater’s impact on ice shelves, but ignore the movement of water across the ice surface, predict a metre of global sea-level rise this century5 in response to atmospheric warming6. To understand the impact of water moving across the ice surface a broad quantification of surface meltwater and its drainage is needed. Yet, despite extensive research in Greenland7,8,9,10 and observations of individual drainage systems in Antarctica10,11,12,13,14,15,16,17, we have little understanding of Antarctic-wide surface hydrology or how it will evolve. Here we show widespread drainage of meltwater across the surface of the ice sheet through surface streams and ponds (hereafter ‘surface drainage’) as far south as 85° S and as high as 1,300 metres above sea level. Our findings are based on satellite imagery from 1973 onwards and aerial photography from 1947 onwards. Surface drainage has persisted for decades, transporting water up to 120 kilometres from grounded ice onto and across ice shelves, feeding vast melt ponds up to 80 kilometres long. Large-scale surface drainage could deliver water to areas of ice shelves vulnerable to collapse, as melt rates increase this century. While Antarctic surface melt ponds are relatively well documented on some ice shelves, we have discovered that ponds often form part of widespread, large-scale surface drainage systems. In a warming climate, enhanced surface drainage could accelerate future ice-mass loss from Antarctic, potentially via positive feedbacks between the extent of exposed rock, melting and thinning of the ice sheet.

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Change history

  • 08 November 2017

    Please see accompanying Corrigendum (http://doi.org/10.1038/nature24478). In this Letter, we misinterpreted the units of the melt rate variable output by the regional climate model RACMO2 to be kilograms per square metre per day instead of kilograms per square metre per second. This caused us to underestimate modelled melt rates considerably. This error has not been corrected online.


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We acknowledge funding from NASA grant number NNX14AH79G, NSF grant numbers GG008566 and 1443534, and the Old York Foundation. We also thank I. Cordero for assisting with meltwater feature digitization. We thank J. Lenaerts for sharing RACMO2 climate model output.

Author information


  1. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA

    • Jonathan Kingslake
    • , Indrani Das
    •  & Robin E. Bell
  2. Department of Geography, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK

    • Jeremy C. Ely


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J.K. led the project and the preparation of the manuscript. J.C.E. mapped surface drainage in selected locations. I.D. led analysis of climate model output. R.E.B., along with the other authors, assisted with preparation of the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jonathan Kingslake.

Reviewer Information Nature thanks A. F. Banwell, G. Flowers and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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