Endothelin, a 21-amino-acid peptide, participates in various physiological processes, such as regulation of vascular tone, humoral homeostasis, neural crest cell development and neurotransmission. Endothelin and its G-protein-coupled receptor are involved in the development of various diseases, such as pulmonary arterial hypertension, and thus are important therapeutic targets. Here we report crystal structures of human endothelin type B receptor in the ligand-free form and in complex with the endogenous agonist endothelin-1. The structures and mutation analysis reveal the mechanism for the isopeptide selectivity between endothelin-1 and -3. Transmembrane helices 1, 2, 6 and 7 move and envelop the entire endothelin peptide, in a virtually irreversible manner. The agonist-induced conformational changes are propagated to the receptor core and the cytoplasmic G-protein coupling interface, and probably induce conformational flexibility in TM6. A comparison with the M2 muscarinic receptor suggests a shared mechanism for signal transduction in class A G-protein-coupled receptors.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution
Open Access articles citing this article.
Structure of the active Gi-coupled human lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 complexed with a potent agonist
Nature Communications Open Access 15 September 2022
Fly casting with ligand sliding and orientational selection supporting complex formation of a GPCR and a middle sized flexible molecule
Scientific Reports Open Access 13 August 2022
Experimental & Molecular Medicine Open Access 29 September 2021
Subscribe to Journal
Get full journal access for 1 year
only $3.90 per issue
All prices are NET prices.
VAT will be added later in the checkout.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.
All prices are NET prices.
Yanagisawa, M. et al. A novel potent vasoconstrictor peptide produced by vascular endothelial cells. Nature 332, 411–415 (1988)
Barton, M. & Yanagisawa, M. Endothelin: 20 years from discovery to therapy. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 86, 485–498 (2008)
Kedzierski, R. M. & Yanagisawa, M. Endothelin system: the double-edged sword in health and disease. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 41, 851–876 (2001)
Kohan, D. E., Rossi, N. F., Inscho, E. W. & Pollock, D. M. Regulation of blood pressure and salt homeostasis by endothelin. Physiol. Rev. 91, 1–77 (2011)
Rubanyi, G. M. & Polokoff, M. A. Endothelins: molecular biology, biochemistry, pharmacology, physiology, and pathophysiology. Pharmacol. Rev. 46, 325–415 (1994)
Davenport, A. P. International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature. Pharmacol. Rev. 54, 219–226 (2002)
Desmarets, J., Gresser, O., Guedin, D. & Frelin, C. Interaction of endothelin-1 with cloned bovine ETA receptors: biochemical parameters and functional consequences. Biochemistry 35, 14868–14875 (1996)
Mey, J. G. R. D., Compeer, M. G. & Meens, M. J. Endothelin-1, an endogenous irreversible agonist in search of an allosteric inhibitor. Mol. Cell. Pharmacol. 1, 246–257 (2009)
Takasuka, T., Sakurai, T., Goto, K., Furuichi, Y. & Watanabe, T. Human endothelin receptor ETB. Amino acid sequence requirements for super stable complex formation with its ligand. J. Biol. Chem. 269, 7509–7513 (1994)
Hilal-Dandan, R., Villegas, S., Gonzalez, A. & Brunton, L. L. The quasi-irreversible nature of endothelin binding and G protein-linked signaling in cardiac myocytes. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 281, 267–273 (1997)
Doi, T., Sugimoto, H., Arimoto, I., Hiroaki, Y. & Fujiyoshi, Y. Interactions of endothelin receptor subtypes A and B with Gi, Go, and Gq in reconstituted phospholipid vesicles. Biochemistry 38, 3090–3099 (1999)
Maguire, J. J. et al. Comparison of human ETA and ETB receptor signalling via G-protein and β-arrestin pathways. Life Sci. 91, 544–549 (2012)
Rosanò, L. et al.. β-arrestin links endothelin A receptor to β-catenin signaling to induce ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106, 2806–2811 (2009)
Bremnes, T. et al. Regulation and intracellular trafficking pathways of the endothelin receptors. J. Biol. Chem. 275, 17596–17604 (2000)
Rosanò, L., Spinella, F. & Bagnato, A. Endothelin 1 in cancer: biological implications and therapeutic opportunities. Nature Rev. Cancer 13, 637–651 (2013)
Remuzzi, G., Perico, N. & Benigni, A. New therapeutics that antagonize endothelin: promises and frustrations. Nature Rev. Drug Discov. 1, 986–1001 (2002)
Clozel, M. et al. Pathophysiological role of endothelin revealed by the first orally active endothelin receptor antagonist. Nature 365, 759–761 (1993)
Sidharta, P. N., van Giersbergen, P. L., Halabi, A. & Dingemanse, J. Macitentan: entry-into-humans study with a new endothelin receptor antagonist. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 67, 977–984 (2011)
Vatter, H. & Seifert, V. Ambrisentan, a non-peptide endothelin receptor antagonist. Cardiovasc. Drug Rev. 24, 63–76 (2006)
Maguire, J. J. & Davenport, A. P. Endothelin@25 - new agonists, antagonists, inhibitors and emerging research frontiers: IUPHAR Review 12. Br. J. Pharmacol. 171, 5555–5572 (2014)
Ballesteros, J. A. Integrated methods for the construction of three dimensional models and computational probing of structure-function relations in G protein-coupled receptors. Methods Neurosci. 25, 366–428 (1995)
Okuta, A., Tani, K., Nishimura, S., Fujiyoshi, Y. & Doi, T. Thermostabilization of the human endothelin type-B receptor. J. Mol. Biol. 428, 2265–2274 (2016)
Venkatakrishnan, A. J. et al. Molecular signatures of G-protein-coupled receptors. Nature 494, 185–194 (2013)
White, J. F. et al. Structure of the agonist-bound neurotensin receptor. Nature 490, 508–513 (2012)
Qin, L. et al. Structural biology. Crystal structure of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with a viral chemokine. Science 347, 1117–1122 (2015)
Chen, J., Sawyer, N. & Regan, L. Protein-protein interactions: general trends in the relationship between binding affinity and interfacial buried surface area. Protein Sci. 22, 510–515 (2013)
Janes, R. W., Peapus, D. H. & Wallace, B. A. The crystal structure of human endothelin. Nature Struct. Biol. 1, 311–319 (1994)
Takashima, H. et al. Distributed computing and NMR constraint-based high-resolution structure determination: applied for bioactive Peptide endothelin-1 to determine C-terminal folding. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 4504–4505 (2004)
Andersen, N. H., Chen, C. P., Marschner, T. M., Krystek, S. R. Jr & Bassolino, D. A. Conformational isomerism of endothelin in acidic aqueous media: a quantitative NOESY analysis. Biochemistry 31, 1280–1295 (1992)
Lättig, J., Oksche, A., Beyermann, M., Rosenthal, W. & Krause, G. Structural determinants for selective recognition of peptide ligands for endothelin receptor subtypes ETA and ETB . J. Pept. Sci. 15, 479–491 (2009)
Tam, J. P. et al. Alanine scan of endothelin: importance of aromatic residues. Peptides 15, 703–708 (1994)
Galantino, M. et al. D-amino acid scan of endothelin: importance of amino acids adjacent to cysteinyl residues in isomeric selectivity. Pept. Res. 8, 154–159 (1995)
Saeki, T., Ihara, M., Fukuroda, T., Yamagiwa, M. & Yano, M. [Ala1,3,11,15]endothelin-1 analogs with ETB agonistic activity. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 179, 286–292 (1991)
Nakajima, K. et al. Structure-activity relationship of endothelin: importance of charged groups. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 163, 424–429 (1989)
Ergul, A., Tackett, R. L. & Puett, D. Identification of receptor binding and activation sites in endothelin-1 by use of site-directed mutagenesis. Circ. Res. 77, 1087–1094 (1995)
Lee, J. A. et al. Lysine 182 of endothelin B receptor modulates agonist selectivity and antagonist affinity: evidence for the overlap of peptide and non-peptide ligand binding sites. Biochemistry 33, 14543–14549 (1994)
Talbodec, A. et al. Aspirin and sodium salicylate inhibit endothelin ETA receptors by an allosteric type of mechanism. Mol. Pharmacol. 57, 797–804 (2000)
Kikuchi, T. et al. Endothelin-1 analogues substituted at both position 18 and 19: highly potent endothelin antagonists with no selectivity for either receptor subtype ETA or ETB . J. Med. Chem. 36, 4087–4093 (1993)
Kruse, A. C. et al. Activation and allosteric modulation of a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Nature 504, 101–106 (2013)
Krumm, B. E., White, J. F., Shah, P. & Grisshammer, R. Structural prerequisites for G-protein activation by the neurotensin receptor. Nature Commun. 6, 7895 (2015)
Huang, W. et al. Structural insights into μ-opioid receptor activation. Nature 524, 315–321 (2015)
Rasmussen, S. G. et al. Crystal structure of the β2 adrenergic receptor-Gs protein complex. Nature 477, 549–555 (2011)
Nygaard, R. et al. The dynamic process of β2-adrenergic receptor activation. Cell 152, 532–542 (2013)
Sounier, R. et al. Propagation of conformational changes during μ-opioid receptor activation. Nature 524, 375–378 (2015)
Katritch, V. et al. Allosteric sodium in class A GPCR signaling. Trends Biochem. Sci. 39, 233–244 (2014)
Standfuss, J. et al. The structural basis of agonist-induced activation in constitutively active rhodopsin. Nature 471, 656–660 (2011)
Xu, F. et al. Structure of an agonist-bound human A2A adenosine receptor. Science 332, 322–327 (2011)
Takasuka, T., Adachi, M., Miyamoto, C., Furuichi, Y. & Watanabe, T. Characterization of endothelin receptors ETA and ETB expressed in COS cells. J. Biochem. 112, 396–400 (1992)
Serrano-Vega, M. J., Magnani, F., Shibata, Y. & Tate, C. G. Conformational thermostabilization of the β1-adrenergic receptor in a detergent-resistant form. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 877–882 (2008)
Hattori, M., Hibbs, R. E. & Gouaux, E. A fluorescence-detection size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay for membrane protein precrystallization screening. Structure 20, 1293–1299 (2012)
Okamoto, Y. et al. Palmitoylation of human endothelinB. Its critical role in G protein coupling and a differential requirement for the cytoplasmic tail by G protein subtypes. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 21589–21596 (1997)
Cherezov, V. et al. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human β2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor. Science 318, 1258–1265 (2007)
Thorsen, T. S., Matt, R., Weis, W. I. & Kobilka, B. K. Modified T4 lysozyme fusion proteins facilitate G protein-coupled receptor crystallogenesis. Structure 22, 1657–1664 (2014)
Caffrey, M. & Cherezov, V. Crystallizing membrane proteins using lipidic mesophases. Nature Protocols 4, 706–731 (2009)
Kabsch, W. Xds. Acta Crystallogr. D 66, 125–132 (2010)
McCoy, A. J. et al. Phaser crystallographic software. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 40, 658–674 (2007)
Emsley, P., Lohkamp, B., Scott, W. G. & Cowtan, K. Features and development of Coot. Acta Crystallogr. D 66, 486–501 (2010)
Adams, P. D. et al. PHENIX: a comprehensive Python-based system for macromolecular structure solution. Acta Crystallogr. D 66, 213–221 (2010)
Chen, V. B. et al. MolProbity: all-atom structure validation for macromolecular crystallography. Acta Crystallogr. D 66, 12–21 (2010)
Doi, T. et al. Characterization of human endothelin B receptor and mutant receptors expressed in insect cells. Eur. J. Biochem. 248, 139–148 (1997)
Wada, K. et al. Purification of an endothelin receptor from human placenta. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 167, 251–257 (1990)
Elshourbagy, N. A. et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the major endothelin receptor subtype in porcine cerebellum. Mol. Pharmacol. 41, 465–473 (1992)
Aumelas, A. et al. [Lys(-2)-Arg(-1)]endothelin-1 solution structure by two-dimensional 1H-NMR: possible involvement of electrostatic interactions in native disulfide bridge formation and in biological activity decrease. Biochemistry 34, 4546–4561 (1995)
Wallace, A. C., Laskowski, R. A. & Thornton, J. M. LIGPLOT: a program to generate schematic diagrams of protein-ligand interactions. Protein Eng. 8, 127–134 (1995)
Robert, X. & Gouet, P. Deciphering key features in protein structures with the new ENDscript server. Nucleic Acids Res. 42, W320–W324 (2014)
We thank S. Nishimura and K. Kumazaki for discussions, Y. Oomae and K. Yamaguchi for ETB mutant preparations, the beamline staff at BL32XU of SPring-8 (Hyogo, Japan) for technical help during data collection, and T. Suzuki for the mass spectrometry. This work was supported by Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI grant numbers 15J09780, 22227004, 24227004, 25650019, 26440024, and 26640102; the Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology Program; Platform for Drug Discovery, Information, and Structural Life Science from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan; the Japan New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED) and the National Institute of Biomedical Innovation.
Nature thanks M. Barton, A. Davenport and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.
Extended data figures and tables
a, Crystallization construct of ETB receptor, shown with all of the modifications to the human wild-type ETB receptor. The thermostabilizing mutations R124Y1.55, D154A2.57, K270A5.35, S342A6.54 and I381A7.48, and the three cysteine mutations, C396A, C400A and C405A, are coloured red and cyan, respectively. The C-terminal residues after S407 were truncated, and the T4L or mT4L was inserted between Lys303 and Leu311. The most conserved residues in each TM helix are coloured gold. Dashed lines indicate disulfide bonds. A Flag epitope tag was added after the N-terminal signal sequence, and a TEV protease site was introduced between Gly57 and Leu66. b, Thermostability profiles of the GFP-fused wild-type ETB and ETBR-Y5, measured by the FSEC-TS method50. Each fluorescent signal intensity at the monomeric peak was normalized to that of the unheated sample as 100%. Data are given as means ± s.e.m. of three independent experiments. The wild-type ETB–GFP (closed circles) has a melting temperature (Tm) of 36.7 °C and ETBR-Y5–GFP (open circles) has a Tm of 50.1 °C, as calculated from the fitting curves. c, d, Apparent 125I-labelled ET-1 equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd). Values of the apparent dissociation constants for the wild-type (WT), thermostabilized (ETBR-Y5), T4-fused (ETB-Y4-T4L) and mT4L-fused (ETBR-Y5-mT4L) constructs are shown. Each experiment was performed three or four times. d, The apparent inhibition constants (Ki) for 125I-labelled ET-1 binding and half-maximal effective concentrations (EC50) for Gi activation by ET-1 and ET-3. Values for wild-type (WT) and thermostabilized (ETBR-Y5) constructs are shown. e, Time courses for GTP-γS binding to the G protein Gi mediated by wild-type (circles) and thermostabilized (squares) ETB receptors reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles, in the presence (open symbols) or absence (filled symbols) of ET-1. The assays were repeated four or five times. f, g, ET-1-dependent (f) and ET-3-dependent (g) Gi activation mediated by wild-type (closed circles) and thermostabilized (open circles) ETB receptors.
a, b, Ligand-free (a) and ET-1-bound (b) structures of ETB, and the crystallized constructs. Two crystal structures were obtained, using the different constructs indicated in each panel. The thermostabilizing mutations and the Cys-to-Ala mutations to avoid lipid modification are indicated with red and blue circles, respectively. c–e, Crystal packing of the ligand-free structure of ETBR-Y5-mT4L (c) and the architectures of the cytoplasmic (d) and extracellular (e) sides. The 2Fo − Fc electron density map contoured at 0.8σ (blue mesh) revealed a sulfate ion bound to the cytoplasmic surface, which stabilizes the cytoplasmic architecture. The extracellular view shows a strong positive Fo − Fc density (green and red meshes contoured at 2.5 and −2.5σ, respectively) within the orthosteric pocket, which was assigned as the C-terminal tag residues from the adjacent molecule in the crystal lattice. f, Close-up extracellular view and the C-terminal tag sequence modelled in the density. These residues are not included in the deposited coordinate files, because we could not exclude the possibility that contaminant peptides are bound to the receptor. g, h, Crystal packing of the ET-1-bound structure of ETBR-Y5-T4L (g) and close-up view of the crystal packing contacts between the adjacent molecules (h). TM6 is partly involved in the crystal packing with the adjacent molecule. TM5 forms a continuous helix, together with the first helix of T4L.
a–d, Comparison of the orthosteric pockets of the peptide-activated GPCRs bound to agonists (a, b, d) or an antagonist (c). Ribbon representations (top) and cutaway surfaces (bottom) for ETB in complex with ET-1 (a), NTSR1 in complex with the NTS8–13 peptide (PDB accession number 4GRV) (b), chemokine receptor CXCR4 in complex with the virus chemokine vMIP-II (PDB accession number 4RWS) (c) and the μ-opioid receptor in complex with the small-drug agonist BU72 and the nanobody Nb39 (PDB accession number 5C1M) (d) are aligned, according to the position of W6.48. The peptidic and small-drug agonist/antagonist are represented by ribbons and sticks. Interaction ranges are indicated by black brackets (top), and the approximate interacting surface areas for their ligands are indicated (bottom). The extent of the penetration of the C-terminal tail of ET-1 is similar to the small drug-agonist (BU72) bound to the μ-opioid receptor, and is much deeper than the peptide agonist bound to NTSR1. The internal electric charges of the orthosteric pockets are complementary to the terminal charges of their peptide ligands: ETB and NTSR1 are positively charged, while CXCR4 and the μ-opioid receptor are negatively charged.
a, The Fo − Fc omit map for ET-1, contoured at 2.0σ, is shown. ET-1 is depicted by sticks and ribbons. The N-terminal end of the α-helical region is capped by the D8 and E10 side chains. The distances between the nitrogen at the N terminus and the carboxyl oxygens of D18 and W21 are indicated with red dotted lines (Å). The N-terminal and α-helical regions of ET-1 are stabilized by intra-peptide interactions; the negatively charged D8 and E10 side chains coordinate the backbone amides of the K9, E10 and C11 residues, supporting the α-helical folding, and the short hairpin at the M7 residue is stabilized by a hydrogen bond between the S6 carbonyl and the D8 amide. b–e, Reported structures of ET-1 and related peptides. NMR structures of ET-1: full-length model from 20 conformers28 (b) (PDB accession number 1V6R) and a partial model that includes an unmodelled region (from L17 to W21)29 (c) (PDB accession number 1EDP). X-ray crystal structure of the N-terminal-extended ET-1-like peptide63 (PDB accession number 1T7H) (d). X-ray crystal structure of ET-1 (ref. 27) (PDB accession number 1EDN) (e). All structures are represented by sticks and ribbons, and the colour code is the same as in Fig. 1. The X-ray crystal structure of ET-1 (e) probably represents a rather deformed conformation affected by crystal packing interactions. Close-up views in a–c highlight the intra-peptide interactions that stabilize the common architecture of these peptides. Hydrogen bonds are indicated by yellow dotted lines with their respective distance values (Å).
a, b, Stereo views showing the detailed interactions between ET-1 and ETB receptor in the orthosteric pocket, viewed from different viewpoints. Residues involved in the major interactions between ET-1 and ETB receptor are shown, at the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of ET-1 (a) and at the α-helical and C-terminal regions (b). Hydrogen bonds are indicated with yellow dotted lines.
a, Schematic drawing of the orthosteric pocket. The residues shown here are within a radius of 4 Å around the ligand in the crystal structure. Amino-acid residues of ET-1 are represented by capital letters enclosed within circles. Blue and red ovals indicate main chain amide, and carbonyl and carboxyl groups of ET-1, respectively. All residues of the ETB receptor involved in the interactions are indicated by large boxes and amino-acid letters, and the types of interaction are indicated with dotted lines. b, c, ET-1 interactions at the C-terminal region (b) and at the α-helical and N-terminal regions (c) analysed by LIGPLOT64. The labels and stick drawings of ET-1 residues are coloured cyan (N-terminal region), orange (α-helical region) and pink (C-terminal region), according to the same colour code used in Fig. 1. The ETB receptor residues involved in the hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions are indicated by black and green letters, respectively. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are indicated as green dashed lines, and disulfide bonds are indicated as yellow dashed lines.
a, Competitive binding of ET-1 to wild-type and mutant ETB receptors. The IC50 values, representing the apparent half-maximal inhibitory concentration of ET-1 or ET-3 on 125I-labelled ET-1 binding to mutant ETB receptors, are indicated. The corresponding residues in ETA are also indicated in the table, with the non-conserved residues represented in cyan. The letters a and b in the table indicate the host cells for expression: a, expressed in SF+ cell membranes; b, expressed in HEK293 cell membranes. b, c, Mutations that significantly affect ET-1 (b) and ET-3 (c) binding are indicated in the ET-1-bound structure. Mutated residues of ETB are coloured according to the degree of decreased affinity, as shown in Extended Data Fig. 7a. ETs are indicated in ribbon representation with the colours as in d. d, Amino-acid sequences and selectivities of the ET isopeptides. The residues different from ET-1 are highlighted in red. Intra-peptide disulfide bonds are indicated by yellow lines. e, Sequence conservation between human ETA and ETB receptors, mapped on the ET-1-bound ETB structure. The residues of the receptor core are highly conserved between ETA and ETB receptors, and the amino-acid sequences of the C-terminal regions of the three endothelin isopeptides are identical, as shown in Fig. 2f, suggesting that the interactions between the C-terminal region of ET and the receptor core are conserved in any combination of ET isopeptides and receptor subtypes. However, the sequence conservation between ETA and ETB receptors suggests slightly divergent interactions through the extracellular potions of the receptors, including TM5, ECL1 and ECL2, where the N-terminal and α-helical regions of the ET-1 interact with the receptor.
Amino-acid sequences of the thermostabilized crystallized construct (hETBR-Y5), human ETB (UniProt ID: P24530), rat ETB (P26684), human ETA (P25101) and rat ETA (P26684) are aligned65. Secondary structure elements for α-helices and β-strands are indicated by cylinders and arrows, respectively. Conservation of the residues between ETA and ETB is indicated as follows: red panels for completely conserved; red letters for partly conserved; and black letters for not conserved. The thermostabilizing and the Cys-to-Ala mutations in the crystallized constructs are indicated with red and cyan letters, respectively. The residues with the Ballesteros–Weinstein number of X.50 in each TM helix are highlighted with yellow panels. The residues involved in the ET-1 binding are indicated by triangles, coloured according to the interacting regions of ET-1 (cyan, N-terminal region; orange, α-helical region; pink, C-terminal region).
a, b, Cytoplasmic views of ligand-free and ET-1 bound ETB receptors (a) and active and inactive M2R (b). The cytoplasmic architecture is similar between ligand-free and ET-1-bound ETB receptors, while M2R shows the outward displacement of TM6 upon activation. Panels show close-up views of the E/DRY motif, with the important residues represented by sticks. The intra-helical salt bridge interaction is disrupted upon activation in M2R, and R3.50 points towards the centre of the receptor in the active conformation. Although the similar salt bridge formation is prevented by the sulfate ion in the ligand-free ETB receptor, the rotamer orientations of R3.50 in both the ligand-free and ET-1 bound ETB receptors represent the features of the inactive conformation. c–f, The structural comparisons of the β2-adrenergic receptor bound to an antagonist (PDB accession number 2RH1) and bound to an agonist and Gs (PDB accession number 3SN6) (c), the μ-opioid receptor bound to an antagonist (PDB accession number 4DKL) and bound to an agonist and nanobody (PDB accession number 5C1M) (d), rhodopsin in the ground state (PDB accession number 3PXO) and in the active state (PDB accession number 2X72) (e), and the A2A receptor bound to an antagonist (PDB accession number 4EIY) and bound to an agonist (PDB accession number 3QAK) (f). Cytoplasmic view (top), E/DRY motif on TM3 (middle upper), CWXP motif on TM6 (middle lower) and NPXXY motif on TM7 (bottom) of each receptor are shown. Red arrows in the upper panels indicate the outward displacement of TM6 that occurs upon receptor activation. The putative water molecule at the NPXXY motif in the β2-adrenergic receptor is represented by red circle. Residues involved in the structural rearrangement during receptor activation are represented by sticks, and hydrogen bonding interactions are indicated with yellow dotted lines. The agonist-bound A2A receptor retains the structural features of the inactive conformation. The intra-helical salt bridge is formed in the E/DRY motif, and Tyr7.53 in the NPXXY motif is too far away to form a water-mediated hydrogen bonding interaction with Tyr5.58, although TM7 is shifted inwards (middle upper and lower panels in f).
a–d, Cutaway representation and hydrophobic packing interaction in the receptor core for the ligand-free (a, c) and ET-1-bound (b, d) ETB receptor. ET-1 binding induces the tightly packed hydrophobic core in the receptor. e, f, Collapse of the putative Na+ binding pocket in the ETB receptor. Asp1472.50 and its surrounding residues are shown for the ligand-free (e) and ET-1-bound (f) ETB receptor. Cross-sectional representations of the orthosteric pocket are overlaid. The putative Na+ binding site is indicated with a purple-shaded circle. The electron density for the Na+ ion was not observed, probably because of the low resolution of the structure. g, h, TM6–7 interactions in the ligand-free (g) and ET-1-bound (f) ETB receptors. TM1, TM2, TM3 and TM7 are shown as surface representations. The residues of TM6 directed towards TM7 are represented by CPK models.
About this article
Cite this article
Shihoya, W., Nishizawa, T., Okuta, A. et al. Activation mechanism of endothelin ETB receptor by endothelin-1. Nature 537, 363–368 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature19319
This article is cited by
Structure of the active Gi-coupled human lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 complexed with a potent agonist
Nature Communications (2022)
Fly casting with ligand sliding and orientational selection supporting complex formation of a GPCR and a middle sized flexible molecule
Scientific Reports (2022)
Experimental & Molecular Medicine (2021)
Nature Chemical Biology (2021)
Structures of active-state orexin receptor 2 rationalize peptide and small-molecule agonist recognition and receptor activation
Nature Communications (2021)