Very little is known about Neanderthal cultures1, particularly early ones. Other than lithic implements and exceptional bone tools2, very few artefacts have been preserved. While those that do remain include red and black pigments3 and burial sites4, these indications of modernity are extremely sparse and few have been precisely dated, thus greatly limiting our knowledge of these predecessors of modern humans5. Here we report the dating of annular constructions made of broken stalagmites found deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwest France. The regular geometry of the stalagmite circles, the arrangement of broken stalagmites and several traces of fire demonstrate the anthropogenic origin of these constructions. Uranium-series dating of stalagmite regrowths on the structures and on burnt bone, combined with the dating of stalagmite tips in the structures, give a reliable and replicated age of 176.5 thousand years (±2.1 thousand years), making these edifices among the oldest known well-dated constructions made by humans. Their presence at 336 metres from the entrance of the cave indicates that humans from this period had already mastered the underground environment, which can be considered a major step in human modernity.
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We thank the owners of the cave (Nidauzel association), the French Ministry of Culture & Communication, MCC (DRAC-SRA Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse), M. Vaginay, P. Chalard, É. Mauduit, the Speleological & Archaeological Society of Caussade (SSAC), CNRS (InEE & InSU), the University of Bordeaux-PACEA, LSCE Gif-s/-Yvette, M. O’Farrell and C. Garrec for editing, V. Feruglio for a drawing. We thank F. Dewilde and F. Mansouri (LSCE) for their assistance with the isotopic measurements, Y. Vanbrabant (Belgian Geological Survey) for his assistance with the cave monitoring and B. Martinez for his help with the topography. We thank S. Mariot and R. Weil (LPS, Paris-XI University, Orsay) for their help in the infrared spectrometry measurements. This work is mainly supported by French MCC (DRAC-SRA Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse) and in part by the Belgian Science Policy Office. The U-Th dating was supported in part by the U.S. NSF.
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
Extended data figures and tables
a, Bruniquel Cave (marked with a star) is located in the southwest of France, south of the calcareous plateaus of Quercy, east of the Aquitaine Basin. Its entrance (165 m above sea level) overlooks the Aveyron valley, a tributary of the Tarn on the right bank of the Garonne and down from the Massif Central (base map courtesy of M. Jarry). b, Bruniquel Cave in the Aveyron valley. Orange: Lower Palaeolithic site; red: Middle Palaeolithic sites; green: early Upper Palaeolithic; blue: late Upper Palaeolithic (Magdalenian). Circles indicate caves, vertical lines indicate rock shelters and squares mark open-air sites. *Decorated caves. In this area within a 30 km zone around Bruniquel Cave, fifteen major Palaeolithic sites are known. The oldest known human occupations in this region are those of the Igue des Rameaux (Tarn-et-Garonne), a karstic sinkhole where lithic material was associated with a recent mid-Pleistocene fauna, dated from marine isotope stages 9 to 5 (ref. 31). A Middle Palaeolithic, stratified open-air site is also present at La Rouquette-Puycelsi (Tarn) upstream on the nearby Vère River32. The other sites are all attributable to the Upper Palaeolithic, representing the Aurignacian, Gravettian and Solutrean periods, but mainly the Magdalenian period with three decorated caves: Travers de Jannoye, La Magdeleine-des-Albis (Penne, Tarn) and Mayrière (Bruniquel, Tarn-et-Garonne)33 (base map, courtesy of StepMap GmbH, modified by J.J.). c, Topography of Bruniquel Cave. The cave consists of a 10–15 m wide and 4–7 m high corridor, currently known to be 482 m long. Beyond the narrow entrance passage (filled porch), there are no major topographic difficulties until the chamber containing the structure at 336 m from the unobstructed entrance. Currently, no other access has been identified, laterally or at the other end. In this latter case, a second obstructed entrance would be at least 295 m from another slope. Sources: Structure drawn by M. Soulier and F. Rouzaud, 1992; topography realized by Protée-Expert & Get in Situ, 2015; Digital Elevation Model generated with 1957 aerial photography IGN, public domain).
a, General view of the main structure (structure A) with superposed layers of aligned stalagmites (speleofacts) Photo courtesy of É. Fabre, SSAC. b, Example of speleofacts accumulated over three or even four horizontal levels. c, Stalagmites (speleofacts) placed vertically against the main structure (structure A) in the manner of stays. d, e, Two examples of short back stalagmites serving as sustaining pieces. f, Summary of the metric data of the structures.
a, Examples of a fireplace on the main structure. Note the reddened, blackened and fissured stalagmites34. The structure in this location (top) is covered by white, more recent and still active stalagmites. The heated areas on the speleofacts correspond to the red and grey colours, as well as fissuring and superficial spalling. These scars are similar to thermal alterations studied in the cave of Chauvet-Pont d’Arc (Ardèche)35. In our current stage of observation, the study of their distribution enabled us to identify a well-preserved fireplace in structure A, as well as structures that have been disturbed by processes that remain to be determined (structures D and E, for example). b, Numbers per structure of heated areas, thermic spalling, fissured spots and blackened elements (that is, speleofacts) and soot.
a, b, Kernel density estimates for the dimensions (a, length and b, diameter) of speleofacts across the different structures. Structure A can be distinguished from the others by the presence of very large speleofacts. Such speleofacts are not present in structure D, and only rarely in structure B. Structure C, despite its very small size, is worth considering due to the large dimensions of its speleofacts. Structures E and F, with only a few speleofacts and no specific features, are not represented here. A Kruskal–Wallis test conducted on the structures represented here shows a significant difference between the median length and median diameter across structures (P < 0.05). A post hoc analysis of the diameter with Hochberg’s adjustment method, distinguishes structure C from the three others. c, The weight of the speleofacts is estimated by the following formula: πD2Lρ/12 × (1 + d/D + d2/D2) where D is the maximum diameter, d the minimum diameter, L the maximal length, and ρ the calcite density. These weights can be roughly estimated by considering them as truncated cones. As their maximum length L, maximum diameter D, and minimum diameter d are known, their volume can be easily estimated (Extended Data Table 1). Their weight is then obtained by multiplying the previous quantity by the calcite density ρ, which is comprised between 2.5 and 2.8 g cm−3 depending on its porosity and detrital contamination. Minimal weights are obtained using a density of 2.5 g cm−3. d, The figure shows the mean weights and their 95% confidence interval in each structure. e–g, The orientation data (Schmidt diagram36) of the speleofacts in the three main structures (A, B, D) are very similar (e, structure A; f, structure B; g, structure D) and do not show any preferential direction. The distance to the centre of the circle represents the slope; the distribution of the speleofacts is isotropic and mostly planar. This confirms in all cases that such orientation and slope patterns cannot be due to natural processes related to water flow, mass flows or other gravitational processes37, which in any case would not have resulted in the current geomorphology of the cave in this sector.
Red circles: main recognized hearths. The magnetic survey aims to reveal the locations that were heated, including hearths or smaller fireplaces through the detection of magnetic anomalies. The first archaeological applications of this prospection method are for the location of heated archaeological structures (see pages 422–519 of ref. 38). The magnetic properties enhancement by heating was first demonstrated for soils39,40,41, and then on substrate of caves42,43,44. In this type of hydromorphic environment, iron is present as nonmagnetic or weak magnetic FeOOH minerals, such as goethite (see pages 375–421 of ref. 38). In these conditions, temperature elevation above 200–250 °C induces dehydration of the FeOOH, present in clay material, to Fe3O4 (magnetite) which is a strong magnetic mineral43. The increase of magnetic susceptibility induced by heating offers similar information than thermoluminescence methods43. In the present case, a magnetic susceptibility increase beyond a factor of two was observed after heating a clay sample of the cave. Therefore, the heated clay-like material, even if present only in small amounts in speleothems, acquired a sufficiently high magnetization to generate a local earth magnetic deformation, also called an anomaly. As this deformation decreases when the source distance increases (see pages 422–519 of ref. 38), a larger anomaly with a medium intensity might reveal a hearth under the stalagmitic floor (between structures B and C), calcite being magnetically nearly neutral (diamagnetic). The realization of magnetic survey at high spatial resolution for detection of paleohearths in prehistoric cave is a recent innovation44. The magnetic field explored above the structures was over one metre thick, with a dual sensor G858 Geometrics magnetometer with an extended cable. A 360° prism was inserted between both sensors, which were superposed at a distance of 0.22 m. These elements were hung at the end of a telescopic boom pole and fixed on a tripod. 3D geolocation measurements were ensured by tracking with a Trimble S8 total station following the 360° prism. This apparatus allows coverage of a volumetric space up to 5 m from the operator with ten measurements per second while controlling the space covered44. Extended Data Fig. 5 presents the results of the magnetic measurements. Altitude contour lines (8.5 cm distance interval) are extracted from photogrammetric data. The magnetic intensity point cloud is a bottom view of the magnetic field intensity gradient, that is, the difference in magnetic field intensity as measured between the bottom and top sensors. As the local past and present magnetic field have an inclination of ~63° down, a magnetic source generates a dipolar local deformation of the magnetic field with a negative anomaly to the north and positive to the south38. In Extended Data Fig. 5, a dipole corresponds to a blue and red spot aligned approximately north–south. The majority of the main dipoles of metric dimension observable are mostly associated to fire traces (reddened, blackened calcite) observed on the horizontally positioned stalagmites, for example, the heated zone of the structures D and E. Increases of magnetic viscosity, known as a fire marker42, are observed in such zones. Some places present split positive anomalies, for example, places located on structure D, indicating twin core fires or non-contemporaneous fires. The main measured dipole is located to the west of structure B at the border of a zone covered by a calcite layer and near a char concentration zone, which suggests the occurrence of a hearth underneath the flowstone. Some visible heated zones did not reveal any magnetic anomaly, indicating that the substratum at these places was heated below 200–250 °C. The most tenuous dipoles located on the flat ground surface may reflect the changing nature of the substratum, rather than any heating. Indeed, the weak magnetic contrast between clay material and calcite material can be the source of a weak anomaly. An alternative explanation is the presence of a heated zone underneath a thick stalagmitic floor, the distance between source and measurement mitigating the anomaly38. For example, an anomaly located at midway between structures B and C. Complementary analysis of the spatial distribution of the clay material must be realized to determine which hypothesis is correct.
Three black fragments (a, b, c) were analysed with a scanning electron microscope energy dispersive spectrometry probe (SEM–EDS) (e, f), fast Fourier infra-red, FTIR (d) and Raman spectrometry (g, h, i). FTIR analyses were made at the Laboratoire de Physique des Solides (LPS), Paris-XI University, Orsay by S. Mariot on a Nicolet iS50 ABX spectrometer. Raman spectroscopy was performed with an Invia spectrometer from Renishaw and the atomic spectrometry was performed with a FE-SEM Zeiss Sigma equipped with an EDS probe at the École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France. a, A 6.7-cm-long piece of burnt bone (Br-SE-Os) trapped between stalagmite elements in structure E (Extended Data Fig. 5) was almost completely covered by calcite except on its medullar side. Three layers were sampled for uranium-series dating (green, red and blue marks) (Extended Data Table 2). The bone with the 5-mm-thick calcite crust was cut longitudinally and the calcite was sampled along deposition layers, starting at the internal surface after removing the bone material. Three thin discontinuities marked by thin brownish layers separate the deposits into three calcite layers from which three 230Th samples were taken (Extended Data Table 2). Except the middle sub-sample, which was contaminated by detrital elements (high 232Th concentration), 230Th ages given by the other two sub-samples are in stratigraphic order and in agreement with the age of the structures. This demonstrates that humans introduced this bone before 180.9 ± 20.3 ka. Note the elongated medulla cells of the bone and their deep black colour, suggesting that the collagen was carbonized at a temperature between 300 and 400 °C45,46. Note that the burnt bone was covered by a reddish and blackened speleofact (Extended Data Fig. 5), due to the heat. d, FTIR spectroscopy (blue spectrum on the black part of the bone, green spectrum on the grey part of the bone, red spectrum on the overlying calcite crust and grey spectrum on a modern char) show well-characterized PO43− absorbance peaks, suggesting that the bone was burnt; such as the slightly more individualized peak at ~618 cm−1; and the splitting factor (SF) calculated with the heights of the 603 and 565 cm−1 peaks, which are here relatively high (4.6 to 4.8) and typical of burnt bones47. g, Raman spectrometry displays two well-defined peaks at 1,580 cm−1 and at 1,350 cm−1, characteristic of char, demonstrating that it was burnt48,49. b, Sample Br-SB7 is a 3 mm large black fragment found trapped in the core of Br-stm-SB7 (Fig. 2). This fragment is situated just below the base of the regrowth dated to 175.2 ± 0.8 ka, and just above the ancient surface of the ‘old’ stalagmite (whose layers have been dated to 222.4 ± 5.8 ka). h, Raman spectra of this black fragment display two well-defined peaks at 1,580 cm−1 and at 1,350 cm−1 characteristic of char carbon49,50. e, SEM–EDS shows the presence of phosphorous, in addition to carbon, suggesting that it is a burnt bone fragment, similar to the larger bone piece (a). Because it is trapped in the dated calcite core, it also demonstrates that the fire occurred before 175.2 ± 0.8 ka. c, A black aggregate of millimetre-sized fragments (Br-PS92), mainly burnt bones of 1–3 cm was collected in 1992 by F. Rouzaud in the char concentration zone near structure B (Extended Data Fig. 5), and analysed recently. i, As with the previous samples, the Raman spectrum is typical of char carbon with vibrational bands at 1,580 cm−1 and 1,350 cm−1. f, The SEM images (back scattered mode) show a blend of at least three phases at the micrometre scale. The elemental analyses performed by EDS on each of these phases allow their attribution to a carbonaceous component (the EDS spectrum shows a major peak of carbon), a phosphorous component (the three major peaks (Ca, P and O) strongly suggest a phase belonging to the apatite family), and a clay component (attested by the coexistence of the three major peaks Si, Al, O), respectively. The Raman spectra demonstrate that the carbonaceous component is a char48,49, that is, a carbonaceous solid resulting from the heat treatment of an organic precursor. These results confirm that the char concentration zone near structure B was most probably a hearth, and that humans burned bones on the clay-like soil of the cave.
a, b, Stable isotope measurements (calcite δ18O and δ13C) were made on parts of cores extracted from the structure to check the coherency of the isotope signal with an already published time series from speleothems from the Villars Cave (Dordogne)50, located 100 km to the northwest of Bruniquel Cave. The results reveal a good match between the average δ18O of regrowths after 176 ka and the Vil-car1 flowstone stable isotopes. This is also true for the sample that covers marine isotope stage 5e, with a much lower amplitude change, however. The Bruniquel core δ13C signal appears more variable, possibly due to a greater sensitivity of the vegetation density to climatic changes or to detrital contaminations, which are probably close to the discontinuity at the base of the regrowths (b). Higher resolution measurements combined with more uranium-series dating will allow the construction of short palaeoclimatic time series and more detailed observations of climatic variations. Today, the Structure Chamber has an extremely stable temperature of 12.68 ± 0.02 °C (two times the standard deviation of the temperature values measured during one year with a time step of 1.5 h) compared to the outside temperature over the same period (13.2 ± 8.8 °C). These results indicate the current confinement of the cave environment, important for isotopic studies.
above, the specific task sequence in Bruniquel Cave (a). Below, replacement within the general context of various indicators of modern behaviour (b). a, Chaîne opératoire (task sequence) of the construction of the structures in Bruniquel Cave. This type of construction implies the beginnings of a social organization: this organization could consist of a project that was designed and discussed by one or several individuals, a distribution of the tasks of choosing, collecting and calibrating the speleofacts, followed by their transport (or vice versa) and placement according to a predetermined plan. This work would also require adequate lighting. The construction of such a structure, involving the placement and arrangement of speleofacts, supposes a minimum degree of skill, since architectural techniques such as inserting wedging elements between two rows of speleofacts (Extended Data Fig. 2d, e), or placing stays to act as a buttresses (Extended Data Fig. 2c), appear to have been used. We evaluated the number of speleofacts used (approximately 400), as well as their combined weight (between 2.1 and 2.4 tons), but not yet the number of hours necessary to realize the structures. This will require long and complex experimental procedures that will be undertaken in future research. The complexity of the structure, combined with its difficult access (335 m from the cave entrance), are signs of a collective project and therefore suggest the existence of an organized society that was already on the path to ‘modernity’. Until now, no site of this age, attributed to Neanderthals—even late ones—or early modern humans has been associated with such activities in an underground space. b, A multiple species model for the origin of behavioural modernity in Europe. Modified from ref. 15, to which was added the ‘Deep Cave Occupation’ and ‘Bruniquel Cave’.
This file contains Supplementary Methods, Supplementary Tables 1–2 and Supplementary Data. (PDF 322 kb)
The 3D-model clearly showing the different types of structures: two annular ones (with superposed layers of stalagmites), which are the most impressive constructions, and four smaller stalagmite accumulation structures (especially two in the centre of the main structure A). (MOV 25689 kb)
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Jaubert, J., Verheyden, S., Genty, D. et al. Early Neanderthal constructions deep in Bruniquel Cave in southwestern France. Nature 534, 111–114 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature18291
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