Letter | Published:

Regulation of black-hole accretion by a disk wind during a violent outburst of V404 Cygni

Nature volume 534, pages 7578 (02 June 2016) | Download Citation

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Accretion of matter onto black holes is universally associated with strong radiative feedback1 and powerful outflows2. In particular, black-hole transients3 have outflows whose properties4 are strongly coupled to those of the accretion flow. This includes X-ray winds of ionized material, expelled from the accretion disk encircling the black hole, and collimated radio jets5,6. Very recently, a distinct optical variability pattern has been reported in the transient stellar-mass black hole V404 Cygni, and interpreted as disrupted mass flow into the inner regions of its large accretion disk7. Here we report observations of a sustained outer accretion disk wind in V404 Cyg, which is unlike any seen hitherto. We find that the outflowing wind is neutral, has a large covering factor, expands at one per cent of the speed of light and triggers a nebular phase once accretion drops sharply and the ejecta become optically thin. The large expelled mass (>10−8 solar masses) indicates that the outburst was prematurely ended when a sizeable fraction of the outer disk was depleted by the wind, detaching the inner regions from the rest of the disk. The luminous, but brief, accretion phases shown by transients with large accretion disks2 imply that this outflow is probably a fundamental ingredient in regulating mass accretion onto black holes.

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  • 01 June 2016

    : A citation to Extended Data Fig. 6 in the Methods was corrected to Extended Data Fig. 5.


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Nine of the spectra of 27 June were taken during the visit of King Felipe VI of Spain to the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC); we appreciate the support this visit provides to astrophysical research in Spain. This work is based on observations made with the GTC telescope, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, during both Time Allocation Committee and Director’s Discretionary observing time. We are thankful to the GTC team for the fast response and efficient work throughout the observing campaign. We acknowledge support by the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y competitividad under grants AYA2013-42627 and PSR2015-00397, the Leverhulme Trust Visiting Professorship Grant VP2-2015-046, the International Research Fellowship program of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (PE15024), the Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Technologie (BMWI/DLR, FKZ 50 OR 1408) and the French Research National Agency’s CHAOS project ANR-12-BS05-0009. The use of the MOLLY software developed by T. R. Marsh is gratefully acknowledged.

Author information


  1. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain

    • T. Muñoz-Darias
    • , J. Casares
    • , D. Mata Sánchez
    • , M. Armas Padilla
    •  & M. Linares
  2. Departamento de Astrofísica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, Spain

    • T. Muñoz-Darias
    • , J. Casares
    • , D. Mata Sánchez
    • , M. Armas Padilla
    •  & M. Linares
  3. Department of Physics, Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UK

    • J. Casares
    • , R. P. Fender
    • , P. A. Charles
    •  & K. P. Mooley
  4. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502, Japan

    • M. Armas Padilla
  5. Institutt for Fysikk, Norges Teknisk-Naturvitenskapelige Universitet (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway

    • M. Linares
  6. Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching bei München, Germany

    • G. Ponti
  7. School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK

    • P. A. Charles
  8. Laboratoire Astrophysique Instrumentation Modélisation (AIM), UMR 7158, CEA/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, CEA DRF/IRFU/SAp, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France

    • J. Rodriguez


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T.M.-D. performed the GTC data analysis and wrote the paper. J.C. contributed to the GTC data analysis and assisted in writing the paper. D.M.S. performed the GTC data reduction and contributed to the GTC data analysis. R.P.F. provided the radio data and contributed to the scientific discussion. M.A.P. performed X-ray analysis and contributed to the scientific discussion. M.L. provided day-12 GTC spectra and assisted in writing the paper. G.P. contributed to the scientific discussion. P.A.C. contributed to the scientific discussion and assisted in writing the paper. K.P.M. performed radio data analysis. J.R. provided part of the INTEGRAL data.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to T. Muñoz-Darias.

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