Extended Data Figure 4 : RCM climates used in future, time-continuous RCP scenarios and evolving ice-surface melt rates linked to hydrofracturing model physics.

From: Contribution of Antarctica to past and future sea-level rise

Extended Data Figure 4

ad, January surface (2-m) air temperatures simulated by the RCM at the present-day (2015) (a), twice the present level of carbon dioxide, 2 × CO2 (b), 4 × CO2 (c), and 8 × CO2 (d) with the retreating ice sheet. The colour scale is the same in all panels. Yellow to red colours indicate temperatures above freezing with the potential for summer rain, and surface meltwater production. eh, Evolving ice-surface meltwater production (in metres per year) in the time-evolving RCP8.5 ice-sheet simulations, driven by a time-continuous RCM climatology (Methods) following the RCP8.5 greenhouse gas time series (Fig. 4a). Black lines show the positions of grounding lines and ice-shelf calving fronts at discrete time intervals—e, 2050; f, 2100; g, 2150; and h, 2500—with superposed meltwater production rates.