Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.
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Gene Expression Omnibus
All DNA sequencing and RNA-seq data have been deposited in the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA): accession code EGAS00001000154. All gene expression, genotyping, and methylome data used in this study has been deposited in the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under accession codes GSE49149 and GSE36924. Mouse cell line expression data are available in the ArrayExpress database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress) under accession number E-MTAB-4415.
We would like to thank C. Axford, M.-A. Brancato, S. Rowe, M. Thomas, S. Simpson and G. Hammond for central coordination of the Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative, data management and quality control; M. Martyn-Smith, L. Braatvedt, H. Tang, V. Papangelis and M. Beilin for biospecimen acquisition; and Deborah Gwynne for support at the Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics. We also thank M. Hodgins, M. Debeljak and D. Trusty for technical assistance at Johns Hopkins University. Funding support was from: National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC; 631701, 535903, 427601); Queensland Government (NIRAP); University of Queensland; Australian Government: Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research (DIISR); Australian Cancer Research Foundation (ACRF); Cancer Council NSW: (SRP06-01, SRP11-01. ICGC); Cancer Institute NSW: (10/ECF/2-26; 06/ECF/1-24; 09/CDF/2-40; 07/CDF/1-03; 10/CRF/1-01, 08/RSA/1-15, 07/CDF/1-28, 10/CDF/2-26,10/FRL/2-03, 06/RSA/1-05, 09/RIG/1-02, 10/TPG/1-04, 11/REG/1-10, 11/CDF/3-26); Garvan Institute of Medical Research; Cancer Research UK Glasgow Centre Program, A18076; Avner Nahmani Pancreatic Cancer Research Foundation; R.T. Hall Trust; Petre Foundation; Philip Hemstritch Foundation; Gastroenterological Society of Australia (GESA); American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Landon Foundation—INNOVATOR Award; Wellcome Trust Senior Investigator Award 103721/Z/14/Z; Cancer Research UK Programme Grant C29717/A17263; Cancer Research UK Programme Grant A12481; Pancreatic Cancer UK; The Howat Foundation; University of Glasgow; European Research Council Starting Grant, 311301, Italian Ministry of University and Research (Cancer Genome Project FIRB RBAP10AHJB), Associazione Italiana Ricerca Cancro (n.12182) , Fondazione Italiana Malattie Pancreas – Ministry of Health (CUP_J33G13000210001), European Community Grant FP7 Cam-Pac, grant agreement number 602783.
Extended data figures
This file contains a list of the participants and their affiliations for the Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative.