Correlation of tetranucleotide patterns in a 5 kb sliding window (step size 1 kb) against genome-wide tetranucleotide signatures. The positions of key nitrification genes are indicated. Regions where the tetranucleotide patterns significantly deviate from the genome-wide signature, and nitrification genes located in such regions, are highlighted in green. Asterisks mark genes that are outside significantly deviating regions but may appear to be inside due to space limitations in the figure. a, Ca. N. inopinata (member of Nitrospira lineage II). The hao, cycA, and cycB genes are located in a region whose tetranucleotide pattern deviates slightly but not significantly from the genome-wide signature. The P value cutoff from the Benjamini–Hochberg procedure, indicating a significantly low correlation for a window’s tetranucleotide signature, was 0.00065 for this genome. b, N. moscoviensis (member of Nitrospira lineage II). The P value cutoff for this genome was 0.0013. c, N. defluvii (member of Nitrospira lineage I). The P value cutoff for this genome was 0.00072. In N. moscoviensis (b) and N. defluvii (c), all nxr genes are outside regions with significantly deviating tetranucleotide patterns.