Time-calibrated phylogeny of 198 species of birds inferred from a concatenated, Bayesian analysis of 259 anchored phylogenomic loci using ExaBayes17. Figure continues on the lower panel from the green arrow at the bottom of the top panel. Complete taxon data in Supplementary Table 1. Higher taxon names appear at right. All clades are supported with posterior probability (PP) of 1.0, except for the Balaeniceps–Pelecanus clade (PP = 0.54; clade 109). The five major, successive, neoavian sister clades are: Strisores (brown), Columbaves (purple), Gruiformes (yellow), Aequorlitornithes (blue), and Inopinaves (green). Background colours mark geological periods. Ma, million years ago; Ple, Pleistocene; Pli, Pliocene; Q., Quaternary. Clade numbers refer to the plot of estimated divergence dates (Supplementary Fig. 7). Fossil age-calibrated nodes are shown in grey. Illustrations of representative bird species30 are depicted by their lineages. See Supplementary Information for details and further discussion.