a, TH immunostaining in AVPVs of females and males injected with 6-OHDA (TH-ablation) or saline (control). Scale bars, 20 µm. b, Number of TH+ AVPV neurons in TH-ablation and control females and males (females, nTH-ablation = 12, ncontrol = 13; males, nablation = 9, ncontrol = 8; ***P < 0.001, two-way ANOVA with Fisher’s multiple comparisons). c, TH immunostaining in brain slices from females injected with 6-OHDA or saline into the AVPV. Scale bars, 20 µm. d, Number of TH-immunoreactive neurons in TH-expressing brain areas (nablation = 5, ncontrol = 5). Data are means + s.e.m. AVPV, anteroventral periventricular nucleus, ARC, arcuate nucleus, SN, substantia nigra, VTA, ventral tegmental area.