Extended Data Figure 1 : Intermodel comparisons.

From: Broad plumes rooted at the base of the Earth's mantle beneath major hotspots

Extended Data Figure 1

These figures correspond to the cross-sections in Fig. 1c and d, oriented normal to the direction of Pacific absolute plate motion45. As in Fig. 1, sections are indicated in the inset maps, while white and purple circles indicate position along section and orientation. Shown are relative shear-wave velocity (Vs) anomalies in models SEMUCB-WM1 (this study), S40RTS (ref. 46), PRI-S05 (ref. 47), HMSL-S06 (ref. 48) and GyPSuM (ref. 49), each plotted with respect to its own one-dimensional reference (where the latter notion is well defined: see for example ref. 48; where defined, the one-dimensional reference is often the global average). Panels ae correspond to the MacDonald-hotspot-centred view of Fig. 1d; panels fj correspond to the Pitcairn-centred view of Fig. 1c. This comparison shows that the five models are broadly compatible with each other at long wavelengths. However, in the lower mantle, the MacDonald and Pitcairn plumes are much more clearly defined as vertical conduits in SEMUCB-WM1, and stand out as the strongest and most continuous low-velocity features in the lower mantle in these cross-sections (which span almost half of Earth’s circumference).